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Sociology Paper 1- Topic 3 -Educational achievement by social class
Terms in this set (21)
External factors are factors...
... outside of the school such as family or neighborhoods, over which the school has little control
Internal factors are factors...
... inside the school which affect the childrens progress.
Cultural capital refers to the...
...ideas and knowledge that people have in social life. Everything from rue of etiquette t being able to speak effectively
Restricted code is...
Informal slang used in everyday language between friends and lower working classes
Elaborated code is...
Used by strangers and individuals who have a wider vocabulary. Mainly used by middle class people.
Examples of external factors include;
Poverty and home circumstance
The catchment area
Attitude and values
Parents level of eucation
Poverty and home circumstance- Washbrook said that children from lower social classes live in damp and crowded houses, leading to sickness. This means they will become tired and unable to...
... concentrate at school. Pat time jobs also compete with the demand of the school work. Little money means less access to text books and equipment.
The catchment area - Poor role models give bad behavior to imitate, causing discipline problems, making students have...
... bad attitudes towards school and more interested in following the footsteps of fellow drug users/crime.
Language- Bernstein came up with the restricted and elaborated code. Those with restricted code wont be able to speak...
... properly and so will find it hard to understand textbooks an therefore not get a job.
Cultural Capital Bordeaux said middle class children are at an advantage as they have a higher cultural capital as they are exposed to the dominant culture more by...
... going on school trips and holidays (museums and zoos) .Thus stimulating them more and giving them more knowledge about the world.
Attitudes and values- Middle class children are encouraged to aim high and work hard for success. They plan for the future.
Working class children focus on...
... immediate gratification and fatalism. Encouraged to earn money rather than go to school and be ambitious
Accepting a bad situation and not moving forward from it
A desire o have rewards now rather than waiting for the future
Parents levels of education- Lower class children have parents who are less confident and don't discuss properly at parents evening
Middle class children have parents who are...
... educated and can council the children during exams and give advice for careers.
Washbrook Lower social classes are...
... up to 1 year behind than middle class children before they even start school in things such as ; reading and writing
Criticisms of external factors
-Dont consider the role of the school (labeling)
-Dont consider working class parents work longer and more demanding hours so don't have time to attend parents evenings/help. Not lack of interest
-Exaggerates the differences between the social classes
Examples of internal factors...
-Pressure from government leads to triage intensifying-leaves hopeless cases behind
-Self fulfilling prophecy means children will put their behavior in line with the one their teacher gives the. If teachers say thy wont succeed, they wont.
-Teachers may not posses right qualifications, be prepared with lessons and PowerPoints, and not push students enough to achieve greatness
-Resources may be limited. If building is ugly, gives bad working environment
-Streaming and setting may hold children back/give low self esteem
Criticisms of internal factors...
-Assumes all teachers label and stereotype children
-Ignores other responses from pupils e.g. ritualism
-Furlong says students go through many responses, not fixed
-Ignore factors such as ethnicity and gender
Who says students may go through many responses and that they aren't fixed?....
Educational Action Zones- Set up in disadvantaged areas, schools given extra money for resources and buildings as...
... positive discrimination. Was later re branded as Excellence in Cities.
Kerr and West say schools can help reduce...
... deprivation in children, but schools alone wont solve the problems
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