Terms in this set (31)

  • Allele
    The genes that control each trait.
  • Autosomes
    Body chromosomes
  • Carrier
    When someone has one allele for a disorder or disease, but the person doesn't have that illness.
  • Codominant Alleles
    Two alleles that don't overshadow each other and are expressed equally in a phenotype.*
  • Dominant Trait
    A trait that dominates over another trait and appears in the F1 generation. (Represented by a capital letter)
  • Fertilization
    The fusion of a male and female gamete to form a zygote.
  • Gamete
    Sex cells.
  • Genetics
    The study of heredity.
  • Genotype
    The combination of alleles for a given trait.
  • Heredity
    The process of parents passing traits to offspring.
  • Heterozygous
    The two alleles for a given trait are different. (aka a hybrid)
  • Homologous Chromosomes
    Chromosomes have the same genes as each other in the same sequence but do not necessarily have the same allele of those genes
  • Homozygous
    The 2 alleles for a given trait are the same.
  • Incomplete Dominance
    When neither allele is dominant, but there is a blending effect.
  • Independent Assortment
    Allele pairs separate independently while forming gametes.
  • Karyotype
    The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
  • Multiple Alleles
    An allele of a genetic locus having more than two allelic forms within a population.*
  • Polygenic Inheritance
    When many genes control one trait.
  • Pedigree
    A chart that shows the spread of a disease of many generations of people.
  • Phenotype
    The physical appearance of a trait determined by a genotype.
  • Pollination
    The transfer of pollen from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of the same or another flower. This allows fertilization in the flower, allowing it to develop seeds.
  • Recessive Trait
    A trait that is hidden by the F1 generation. (Represented by a lowercase letter)
  • Sex Chromosomes
    Chromosomes that determine the sex of the organism.
  • Sex-Linked Traits
    Traits that are determined by the sex of the organism.
  • Trait
    A feature of an organism that is shown by the phenotype.
  • Zygote
    A diploid cell resulting in the fusion of two haploid gametes.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
    A disease where blood cells are sickle shaped, causing blood clots and heart problems in patients.
  • Cystic Fibrosis
    A disease where mucus clogs the lungs leading to chronic respiratory infections.
  • PKU
    A disease where a person lacks the enzyme that breaks down phenylalanine causing mental retardation.
  • Huntington's Disease
    A rare dominant disorder of the nervous system.
  • Codominance
    When neither allele is dominant, causing both trait to be expressed in the phenotype of a hetertozygote.