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CH 11: Nervous System
Terms in this set (59)
process of thought- including reasoning, judgment, and perception.
electrical signal transmitted along the nerve fiber in response to a stimulus
chemicals in the brain that transmit messages between nerve cells (neurons)
pertaining to the outside, surface, or surrounding area of an organ or structure or occurring away from its center.
caused by or pertaining to an injury
pertaining to or composed of blood vessels
glue; neuroglial tissue
meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
bone marrow; spinal cord
bad, painful, difficult
near; beside; beyond
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
degenerative disorder that manifests in adulthood with symptoms of difficulty in swallowing and talking, dyspnea, muscle weakness, and paralysis; also called Lou Gehrig disease (named after a famous baseball player afflicted with ALS)
progressive, irreversible deterioration of mental function marked by memory impairment and, commonly, deficits in reasoning, judgment, abstract thought, comprehension, learning, task execution, and use of language.
Chronic, organic brain syndrome characterized by death of neurons in the cerebral cortex and their replacement by microscopic "plaques," which results in dementia that progresses to complete loss of mental, emotional, and physical functioning and personality changes.
Disorder that results from the generation of electrical signals inside the brain, causing recurring seizures in which some people simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, whereas other have extreme convulsions.
Inherited, degenerative disease of the CNS with symptoms developing in middle age as nerve cells in the brain waste away resulting in uncontrolled bizarre movements, emotional disturbances, and mental deterioration.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the ventricles of the brain that is most common in neonates, but can also occur in adults as a result of injury or disease; if left untreated, causes an enlarged heard and cognitive decline.
multiple sclerosis (MS)
Progressive degenerative disease of the CNS characterized by inflammation, hardening, and loss of myelin throughout the spinal cord and brain, which produces weakness and other muscular symptoms.
Malignant tumor composed mainly of cells resembling neuroblasts that occurs most commonly in infants and children.
Nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feeling of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior.
Partial or complete loss of motor function; also called paralysis.
Facial paralysis on one side of the face as a result of inflammation of a facial nerve
Bilateral, symmetrical, nonprogressive motor dysfunction and partial paralysis, which is usually cased by damage to the cerebrum during gestation or birth trauma but can also be hereditary.
loss of muscle function, loss of sensation, or both as a result of spinal cord injury.
Progressive neurological disorder caused by neurotransmitter deficiency (dopamine) that affects the portion of the brain responsible for controlling movement and results in hand tremors; uncontrollable head nodding; shuffling gait; and difficulty talking, swallowing, or competing simple tasks.
inflammation of the grey matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis.
mental disorder marked by loss of contact with reality; often with delusions and hallucinations.
severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve, which travels from the hip to the foot.
chronic viral disease in which painful blisters appear on the skin along the course of peripheral nerve that is cause by inflammation secondary to herpes zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox; also called herpes zoster
congenital neural tube defect characterized by incomplete closure of the spinal canal through which the spinal cord and meninges may or may not protrude.
spina bifida occulta
most common and lease server form of spina bifida without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges
spina bifida cystica
most severe type of spina bifida that involves protrusion of the meninges (meningocele) spinal cord (myelocele) or both (meningomyelocele)
inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to the brain due to a clot or ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage), which allows brain tissue to die and becomes a medical emergency, also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
interruption in blood supply to the brain that does not cause permanent brain damage but may be an indication of a higher risk of a more serious and debilitation condition (stroke); also called ministroke
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis
Laboratory test that examines a sample of CSF obtained from a lumbar puncture, which is analyzed for presence of blood, bacteria, and malignant cells as well as for the amount of protein and glucose present.
Electrodes are placed on the scalp to record electrical activity within the brain; used to evaluate seizures and sleep disorders and periods of unconsciousness, monitor brain surgeries, and determine whether a person is in a coma or brain dead.
lumbar puncture (LP)
insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column to withdraw a sample of CSF used for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological laboratory analysis; also called spinal tap or spinal puncture.
surgical procedure that creates an opening in the skull to gain access to the brain during neurosurgical procedures.
partial destruction of the thalamus to treat psychosis or intractable pain
excision of a circular disk of bone using a specialized saw called a trephine to reveal brain tissue during neurosurgery, or to relieve intracranial pressure (ICP)
produce partial or complete loss of sensation with or without loss of consciousness
produce complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness
produce loss of feeling and affect a local area only
prevent or control seizures
reduce signs and symptoms associated with Parkinson disease
alter neurotransmitters in the brain to alleviate symptoms of delusions and hallucinations
dissolve blood clots in a process known as thrombolysis
tumor of blood vessels
loss of appetite
without ability to speak, read or communicate
difficult to communicate
breaking/cutting of nerves
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