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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. hormonal
  2. sickle-cell disease
  3. polymer
  4. nucleic acid
  5. phospholipids
  1. a a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds, much as a train consists of a train of cars; carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins are examples of these
  2. b an inherited blood disorder that is caused by a substitution of one amino acid (valine) for the normal amino acid (glutamic acid) at a particular position in the primary structure of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells
  3. c a polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins, and through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities; two types are DNA and RNA
  4. d the type of protein that coordinates an organism's activities; example: insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, helps regulate the concentration of sugar in the blood of vertebrates
  5. e cells need these in order to exist because they make up cell membranes; has 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol instead of traditional 3 (triacylglycerol); always assemble into a double-layer aggregate because of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. a fatty acid that has one or more double-bonded carbon atoms formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton; there will be a kink in the hydrocarbon chain wherever a -cis double-bond occurs (causes bending)
  2. the sugar connected to DNA; has one less oxygen atom than the other sugar associated with nucleic acids
  3. macromolecules that are constructed from one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure; all made from same 20 amino acids; most structurally sophisticated molecule known
  4. the method used to determine 3-D structures of proteins; developed in 1959
  5. the sugar connected to RNA; has one more oxygen atom than the other sugar associated with nucleicacids

5 True/False questions

  1. catalystsa process that occurs when the bonds between two monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules, with a hydrogen from the water attaching to one monomer and a hydroxyl group attaching to the adjacent monomer

          

  2. ribonucleic acida type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil; usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses

          

  3. defensivea discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)

          

  4. glycogenthe type of protein that stores amino acids; example: ovalbumin is the protein of egg white, used as an amino acid source for developing embryos

          

  5. storagethe type of protein that stores amino acids; example: ovalbumin is the protein of egg white, used as an amino acid source for developing embryos