AP Human Geography "Gotta Knows"
Terms in this set (100)
first agricultural revolution
this was the transition of humans from nomadic hunting/gathering to sedentary agricultural production of domesticated plants and animals. the first agricultural revolution took place in the Fertile Crescent. (8000 B.C.)
second agricultural revolution
this revolution involved new crop rotation techniques and selective breeding of livestock and led to a marked increase in agricultural production. the second agricultural revolution took place in England.
5 themes (region, location, place, human environment interaction, movement)
region: this divides the world into manageable units for geographic study
location: most geographic study begins with learning the location of places. location can be absolute or relative
place: place describes the human and physical characteristics of a location
human environment interaction: this considers how humans adapt to and modify the environment.
movement: this studies movement and migration across the planet
8 urban models
Concentric Zone Model (Ernest Burgess): created in 1923, this is a model of the internal structure of cities which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Hoyt Model (Homer Hoyt): created in 1939, this model took into account the effect of transportation and communication on a city's growth.
Multiple-Nuclei Model (Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman): created in 1945, this model was an attempt to further describe a city's layout. The two geographers made the argument that the city's downtown core (CBD) was losing its importance in relation to the rest of the city and should be seen less as the focal point of a city and instead as a nucleus within the metropolitan area.
Urban Realms Model (James E. Vance): created in 1964, this suggests that cities are made up of "realms" which are self-sufficient urban areas with independent focal points.
Latin American City Structure Model (Ernest Griffin and Larry Ford): created in 1980, this model describes the structure of cities in Latin America after concluding that the organization of many cities in that region grew following certain patterns.
a daily routine where someone goes through a regular sequence of short moves within a local area (EX. your house)
agglommeration and deglomeration
agglomeration: Grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources (EX. Silicone Valley)
deglomeration: The dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration
process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities (pg. 212 in textbook)
bid rent theory/bid-rent curve
a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city center.
boundary disputes: definitional/territorial, locational/positional, operational/functional,
definitional: dispute over language issues
locational: dispute over where a boundary is place
operational: dispute over management of a boundary
allocational: dispute over who owns the resources
acculturation and assimilation
accultration: process in which one culture substantially changes through interaction with another (one-way transfer)
assimilation: the process through which people lose originality differentiating traits, such as dress, speech, particularities, or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture
Geographer who developed the theory that subsistence farmers want the most leisure time they can have, so they farm in ways that will allow them both to feed their families and to maximize free time. Boserup's theory also said that farmers will change their approach to farming if the population increases and more food is needed, thus making the food supply dependent on human innovation, rather than humans dependent on the food supply.
A location where large shipments of goods are broken up into smaller containers for delivery to local markets (these are typically port cities)
it is seen as a main characteristic of geography. it deals w/ the art & science of map-making. it was mastered by the ancients to aid in geographical study.
central business district (CBD)
The downtown heart of a central city, the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
central place theory (Christaller)
its a spatial theory in urban geography that attempts to explain the reasons behind the distribution patterns, size, and number of cities and towns around the world.
centripetal and centrifugal forces
centripetal force: an attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
centrifugal force: a force that divides people and countries
commercial vs. subsistence agriculture
commercial agriculture: the farming of products for sale off the farm (crop and livestock)
subsistence agriculture: the providing of food for direct consumption by the farmer and farmer's family
conurbation and the megalopolis
conurbation: an extended urban area, typically consisting of several towns merging with the suburbs of one or more cities.
megalopolis: Greek word for "great city." Region described as an MSA that may overlap and cause several large metropolitan areas to come so close together that they form one continuous urban complex.
core, semi-periphery, periphery
cultural landscapes (C. Sauer)
a geographic area the includes cultural resources and natural resources associated with the interactions between nature and human behavior
culture: folk, popular, material, non-material
curves: "J", "S", bell
demographic transition model
stage 1=Low growth, Stage 2=High Growth, Stage 3=Moderate Growth, and Stage 4=Low Growth. A country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
core countries rely on periphery countries for resources and the periphery countries don't benefit/have very little benefit
diffusion: expansion (stimulus, hierarchical, contagious) and relocation (migrant)
expansion: a form of diffusion in which the cultural component spreads outward to new places while remaining strong in its original hearth
relocation: a form of diffusion that involves the actual movement of the original adopters from their point of origin to a new place
a function that represents the way that some entity or its influence decays with distance from its geographical location.
doctrines of major world religions and sects/domination: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism
Judaism: A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
Christianity: a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
Islam: A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Heaven and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Hinduism: A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
economic indicators: GDP, GNP, (a.k.a. GNI) GDP/GNP PPP, GDP/GNP per capita, HDI, etc.)
A piece of economic data, usually of macroeconomic scale, that is used by investors to interpret current or future investment possibilities and judge the overall health of an economy.
economic sectors: primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary
primary: The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing and forestry
secondary: The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
tertiary: The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
quaternary: a way to describe a knowledge-based part of the economy which typically includes services such as information generation and sharing, information technology, consultation, education, research and development, financial planning, and other knowledge-based services.
quinary: Tertiary sector businesses that provide services that are tradionally performed in the home
economic structures (free market/capitalism, mixed, command)
free market/capitalism: no government interference with businesses throughout the country
mixed: economic system that incorporates a mixture of private and government ownership or control, or a mixture of capitalism and socialism.
command: An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy
epidemic vs. pandemic
epidemic: this is a regional outbreak of disease
pandemic: this is an outbreak of a disease the spreads worldwide
portion of the Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
enclaves vs. exclaves
enclaves: a small area occupied by a distinctive minority culture
exclaves: a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory
epidemiological transition model
stage 1=Black Plague, Stage 2=Cholera, Stage 3=Chronic disorders, 4=Longer life expectancies. There is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model.
ethnicity vs race
ethnicity: Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
race: Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
fair trade and free trade
fair trade: alternative to Industrial trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned/democratical run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety hazard
free trade: market forces direct trade
folk culture and popular culture
folk culture: culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogenous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
popular culture: culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention
genetically modified [organisms] (GM) [O]
crops that carry genetically engineered traits
to divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections
geopolitical theories: organic (ratzel), heartland (mackinder), domino, rimland (spykman)
the view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life
global information system (GIS)
a collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact
global positioning system (GPS)
satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geograpic features
the process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes
interaction is proportional to the multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them (distance decay)
green revolution (3rd agricultural revolution)
the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe
hearths (linguistic, religious, agricultural, urban)
the area where an idea or cultural trait originates
social and economic change that began in england in the 1760s when the industrial geography of england changed significantly and later diffused to other parts of western europe.in this period of rapid socioeconomic change, machines replaced human labor and new sourcese of inanimate engery were tapped.coal was the leading energy source,fueling the industrial revolution in england's textile-focused industrial explosion
the doctrine that irredenta should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related
2 dimensional, flat plane, featureless landscape. central Place Theory assumes the existence of an isotropic plane.
group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin (afro-asiatic, altaic, austro-asiatic, austroneasian, indo-european, japanese, korean, niger-congo, sino-tibetan, etc.)
levels development: DCs (semi-periphery, zone 1900, + other labels)
levels of development: LDCs (semi-periphery, zone 1800, + other labels)
a British economist that concluded that the rate of population was growing at a faster rate than agricultural productivity leading to over population
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
A metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people (ex. tokyo)
meining (domain and sphere)
migration (forced, voluntary, chain, internal, external, intervening, agricultural)
MIGRATION: a permanent move to a new location
Forced Migration Permanent movement, usually compelled by cultural factors, that is done due to an outside force
Voluntary Migration Permanent movement undertaken by choice
Chain Migration The migration of people to a certain location because family members of the same nationality previously migrated there
morphology: 5 shapes of states
morphology: study of states' shapes and their effects
compact: distance from geometric center is similar (ex. Germany, Hungary,...)
Elongated a.k.a. attenuated (ex. Chile, Vietnam,...)
Fragmented two or more separate pieces (ex. Indonesia, Philippines,...)
Perforated territory completely surrounds that of another state (ex. Italy, Azerbaijan,...)
Protruded a.k.a. prorupt; have an area that extends from a more compact core (ex.
nation vs state
nation: a culturally defined group of people with a shared past and a common future who relate to a territory and have political goals
state: a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government to be a state an entity must be recognized by such by other states
nationalism vs patriotism
nationalism: loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
patriotism: loyalty to the governing state in which you live
a counter to urban sprawl. development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walk-able neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs. new urbanists want to create neighborhoods that promote a sense of community and a sense of place
population density (arithmetic vs physiological vs agricultural)
arithmetic: the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals are no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
physiological: the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
agricultural: the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
an internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based of what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
population growth patterns
population pyramids (a.k.a. age-sex diagrams)
graphs that show the age-sex distribution of a given population. these are used by demographers as a tool for understanding the make-up of a given population, whether a city, country, region, or the world.
possibilism vs environmental determinism
possibilism: the theory that the physical environment may set limits of human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
environmental determinism: an approach made my Humboldt and Ritter, 19th century geographers, which concentrated on how the physical environment caused social development, applying laws from the natural sciences to understanding relationships between physical environment and human actions.
the largest settlement in a country, if is has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
push and pull factors
push: A factor, such as unemployment, wide scale poverty in Kenya, or the lack of freedom of speech, that induces people to want to leave their country and move to another one
pull: positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas
this "rule" attempts to predict population of cities based on their size rank within their country. The population of the city is predicted using the formula 1/n, where n is the size ranking of the city within its country
religion classifications (monotheistic vs polytheistic vs pantheism: universal vs ethnic/folk
ravenstein's migration laws
resources: renewable vs. non-renewable
created the Modernization Model: has 5 stages
1. traditional society
2. preconditions to takeoff
4. drive to maturity
5. age of mass consumption
the ratio between size of an area on a map and the actual size o that same area on the earths surface
site and situation
site: physical characteristics of a place
situation: location of a place on Earth relative to other places
sovereignty and autonomy
sovereignty: a principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
automony: a self governing country or region (ex. the U.S.)
space-time (and vise-versa) compression
this is the increasing sense of connectivity that seems to be bringing people closer together even though their distances are the same
special economic zones
special economic area within a country in which tax and investment incentives are implemented to attract foreign (and domestic) businesses and investment
survey patterns (long lots, metes and bounds, township-and-range)
supranational/transitional (economic and political)
the level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development
the declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance fro its point of origin
everything is connected to everything else, but closer things tend to be more connected than distant ones
the arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area
the seasonal movement of people with their livestock over relatively short distances, typically to higher pastures in summer and to lower valleys in winter
transportation technology: H2O, animal, rail, truck, air, space, pipeline
von thunen agricultural location theory
it all depends on bulk and perish-ability of the products (concentric circles:
1. city center
2. market gardening
wallerstein's world systems theory
theory originated by Immanual Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world
weber's least cost/industrial location theory
it explains and predicts where industries will locate based on cost analysis of transportation, labor, and agglomeration factors
world (global) cities
dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy
world religions: (basic tenets: Judaism, Christianity and its 2700 sects, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Atheism, Agnostic, Animism, Sikhism, others?)
Judaism: a religion with a belief of one God. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
Zelinksy: mobility transition
he was a cultural geographer who studied american culture, including the patterns of migration in accordance to social and economical changes and the motives and distance for migration
zero population growth
when birth rate equals the death rate