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Arts and Humanities
LA 212 Midterm
Terms in this set (91)
What are cultural landscapes?
distinct geographical areas or properties uniquely "representing the combined work of nature and or man"
-gives us a sense of place (Genus Loci)
4 types of cultural landscapes
1. historic sites--events happened here
2. historic designed landscapes--cemetery, central park
3. historic vernacular sites--what people do, belong to the people
4.ethnographic landscapes--where people have lived or used the landscape
What is the cultural landscape foundation and what do they do?
-Founded by Charles Birnbaum
-believed in stewardship through education
American Society of Landscape Architects
-know Beatrix Farrand, Frederick Law Olmsted Jr, John Charles Olmsted, Downing, and Vaux
-"to lead, to educate to participate in careful stewardship, wise planning and artful design of our cultural and natural environments
What does the history of Landscape Architecture involve?
-context (genus loci): people and place (environment)
-human values and the social role of design
-symbolism: myth and meaning
-effects of invention and technology
-aesthetics: design structure (inspiration from culture and art)
landscape architecture: encompasses the analysis, planning, design, management, and stewardship of the natural and built environments
First Permanent Settlement in the new world?
Jamestown, Virginia (after King James)
-early colonial gardens
How were some of the first settlements laid out in the "New World"?
-focused mainly on grid patterns
-gardens were small and fenced off (without flowers)
What was the design philosophy/emphasis of William Penn's Phillidelphia, Pennsylvania?
-everyone had their own space (1 acre) in city 80 acre gentleman farms
-wide streets (100 ft wide)
-prevented disease and fire
-utopian city planning
Who is James Oglethorpe? And what is significant about him?
-member of Parliament
-Designed Savannah, Georgia (place for debtors)
-big thinker in the enlightenment period (wanted reform)
What is significant about the layout of Savannah, Georgia?
-house lots: 60x90 ft
-5 acre gardens and 44 acre farms
-Prisoners from England--if they could maintain the land for a certain time, then they could keep it
The design of the Governor's House in Colonial Williamsburg was based on what design principles? What types of design elements were used to express this?
-it had parterres (gardens arranged in patterns with gravel paths through them) and topiaries (like French and Italian)--meant to be viewed from above
-pleached (weaving) alleys that you could walk under
-embellished elements from Europe
Politics and believe system that Thomas Jefferson had played an important part in the design of Monitcello and the University of Virginia. What were they and how was this expressed in the design of these places?
-age of enlightenment
-should support oneself (meaning food gardens)
-he believed in education and the interaction between students and scholars (rotundas in U of V)
-made scientific/experimental gardens, english landscape, open space surrounded by forest
U of V designed as "Academic Village" What is this?
-Students and Profs live together
-small gardens for each hall
What are some advantages of Serpentine Walls? What is a Serpentine Wall?
-structurally stronger and thinner
-looks nicer and gives pocks of gardens on each side
-allows you to plant where is weaves in and out
-cheaper to build (less bricks)
-example: U of V
The design layout of many plantations such as Middleton Place, South Carolina in the 1700s was based on what style of design?
-Design after the Principle of the French--Andre Le Notre
-Meant to replicate linear axis with long views, parterre gardens, and round points (planting beds made the round points)
-reflection pond (like Versailles)
groomed plants and shrubbery
gardens meant to be seen from above
-long linear lines
straight walkway lined with trees
trees planted together in lines with interwoven branches
long, open area
What is the meaning of Transcendentalism and how does that affect trends in landscape design?
-literary and philosophical movement that advocated intuition as a mode of perception
-famous writers: Emerson, Thoreau
-plant collection and identification important
*allows us to see whats in the rest of the world and protect whats in the world
What is the Picturesque style of design?
similar to the beautiful, but with more realistic elements, more light and dark, bold and dramatic
-downed logs, rock outcroppings, etc
What is the beautiful style of design?
clean and perfect
Who was known for their color transitions in the cottage garden? What architect did she closely work with? What was the significant about his architectural style?
1. Gertrude Jekyll--Queen of Cottage
2. Edwin Lutyens--transition areas and softening the hard edges
Please describe what is meant by "cottage style"?
-flow-y plants that are meant to look overgrown
-herbs throughout the garden
Who is John Claudius Loudon (Derby Arboretum) and what is the "Gardenesque" movement?
-an advocate of the provision for public open spaces
-first to request space for poor people
-developed the gardenesque style (use exotic plants, gardens don't need to mimic nature)
-D. Arboretum was the first public park in England
unique by the use of exotic in a beautiful picturesque
-using exotics in a native setting, so that gardens don't resemble nature
Joseph Paxton-who is her and what is he responsible for?
He created and designed the Crystal Palace in London
-huge conservatory built to house plants and trees from around the world
-built at Hyde Park and modeled after greenhouses until it was burnt down
-meant to show amazing collections
Who is Andrew Jackson Downing and what significant contributions did he make to residential design?
-botanist and horticulturalist
-wrote "A Treatise of the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening" (know this!)
-designed a neighborhood called SPRINGSIDE
-submits plan in Washington Mall-Washington DC
-Beauty and landscape should be incorporated into your home
-expression of purpose--if you don't use it, don't have it
What is the "Treatise of the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening"?
-written by Andrew Jackson Downing (design principles)
-architectural beauty incorporated with the beauty of the landscape
-utility in selection of property
-expression of purpose
-art of taste
How did the Edwin Budding Machine change the landscape?
this was the first lawn mower, before people would rely on goats and sheep to eat the grass
How did the industrial Revolution change society and thoughts about open space?
-focus on health
-need for spaces for people to get away from pollution and crowded developed areas
-before these spaces were cemeteries until public park designs
what is the difference between a landscape drift in planting and a bedding plant?
landscape drift--plants planted out in the open, designed to look natural block planting strewn in an irregular pattern
What is unique about the Victorian Style Layout of planting beds?
a variety of colorful, exotic flowers in bursts, usually in a raised circle form
-showcase plant collections fanciful layouts of plants
-use beds to showcase house
What is significant about Victorian lifestyle that influences the designs of buildings and landscape?
ornate, over the top
who was the only woman in the founding members of ASLA?
Who are some of Beatrix Farrand's influences?
Max Field Parish
Who designed Dumbarton Oaks? In what style was it designed?
Beatrix Farrand: Urn Terrace-Art Nouveau, Rose Terrcae-Italian
-House with English lawn in front
-Urn terrace with sculptural piece in the middle and mosaic that goes around
-Beatrix makes the rectangular garden a little more curvilinear
**Art Nouveau=curvy, tying nature in
**Arts and crafts= the attention to detail, Japanese influence, handcrafted
-joints only joinery is door hinges (green brothers)
-prospect, refuge, double staircase
-arts and crafts style: beautiful stonework
-the pebble garden: meant to be looked down like a parterre
-steps to the pool: instead of having straight lines of stairs, she breaks the stairs in the middle she has a beautiful piece with lot of attention to detail
**Studies under Charles Sprague Sargent--tells her to study as a civil engineer to learn grading
What is so important about Beatrix Jones Farrand and Ellen Biddle Shipman?
-hired exclusively women
-worked together on a project--women part of the arts and crafts movement
Gwinn Estate--combined arts and crafts with naturalization
What kinds of things drastically changed the landscape of the 1800s? How did this change design emphasis?
-not as much attention to detail
-designed to be easily reproducible
How did the Columbian Expo influence the architecture of today? How was Olmsted involved? What movement did this expo inspire?
1.unprecidented collaboration by artists (LAs, architects, engineers, sculptors, painters) and inspired architectural and unified designs
2. Olmsted designed the landscape of the Expo
3. "city beautiful" movement
Who designed Central Park? Who coined the phrase 'landscape architecture'?
Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmstead
-art of design, social purpose, landscape design, city planning, environment, legitimacy to the field
Who won the competition to design Central Park?
Olmstead and Vaux
Key Features of Central Park
-separation of vehicular and pedestrian circulation
-first landscaped park for the public
-long (huge) meadow-frame both sides with trees for views
-used sheep to mow the lawn
**not open spaces for playing sports-landscape meant to be calmly appreciated
-created "artificial nature" looked natural, even though it was designed
Who was involved with the design of the Biltmore Estate? WHo is Gifford Pinchot and what is he known for? What is important about the collab between Olmsted and Pinchot?
-Olmstead, Pinchot: scientific forestry, much of the estate was left undeveloped
-preservation of nature/forestry
What is the significance of Riverside, Illinois?
-first landscaped suburb
-designed based on topography, the layout was critical by designing the green space around the waterways
-separation of vehicles from pedestrians
Who designed it?
Frederick Law Olmstead
What is significant?
green space is near the water-large lawns separating sidewalks and homes
Who is responsible for the design of Stanford University? What is significant about its design style? (different than Harvard/Yale)
-designed it off the context of CA, rather than copy styles of the east coast schools
Who is Warren Manning? Why is he important?
-promoter of the informal and naturalistic (native plants)
-advocate of the preservation of the American Landscape
-fouding member of ASLA along with Beatrix Farrand, informality
-he mentors landscape architects such and Farrand and Fletcher Steele
What were some of the significant contributions of Frederick Law Olmsted to the profession of LA and to society
-art and design theory
-incorporation of ag sciences
-incorporation of engineering practices
-broader environmental context
Name some projects the Olmsted and his sons were involved with
the Boston's Emerald Necklace
US Capitol Grounds
Palos Verdes Estates
Seattle Park System
Los Angeles proposal
What is significant about the layout of Boston's Emerald Necklace?
-each park has its own sense of place
-was open space for each community
-also for restoration of water (fix muddy river, sewage)
How did Olmsted solve the problem of the Muddy River?
-it was dredged, diverted to the Charles RIver and replaced with salt marsh
-made a part of the parks, restoration, solved issues, and was beautiful
What is the ASLA? What is it that the ASLA does? Why are they important?
American Society of Landscape Architects
-to lead to educate to participate in the careful stewardship, wise planning and artful design of our 'cultural and natural environments
What are the primary concepts behind the designs of the Prairie Movement?
1. its theoretical connection is to nature, not to idealism and classical rules
2. the forms have a regional quality connected to vernacular architecture of the midwest
3. "form allows function"--Louis Sullivan
4. close relationship of the building to the landscape
5. openness and informality of floor-plans with emphasis on use/convenience
Who are Adolph Strauch and Horace Cleveland and what are their contributions to landscape architecture?
Strauch- first landscape architect in Midwest
Cleveland- worked with Olmsted (Spring Grove Cemetery, Graceland Cemetery, park systems)
Who is O.C. Simonds?
founding member of ASLA
-use of native plants
-precursor to Prairie School design philosophy
This designer used the term "ecology" before if was popular
What were Jens Jensen's main childhood inspirations?
prairie landscapes and natives
Who were the men that made the Prairie Landscape popular?
Jens Jensen (brought nature back into design
-everything is related to tying it all together
Frank Lloyd Wright
What are the elements that make Frank Lloyd Wright's buildings unique??
he designs his buildings as part of the landscape
-long horizontal lines
-seamless exchange between inside and outside
What inspires Jens Jensen to be concerned about parks for people within the urban context?
-promoted natural playgrounds
-respects modern world while honoring old world traditions
What is the Council Ring?
an outdoor circular area where people can sit and converse with no one at the "head" spot
-democratic discussion group areas (meetings)
Who are james van Sweden and Wolfgang Oehme? What is significant about their designs in a contemporary setting?
-founders of Oehme van Sweden firm
-developed the New American Garden Style which incorporated plants contextual to the US
-changed the perception of American garden
-redefining the spatial patterns and plants traditionally used
-explored contemporary art concepts, patterns, and colors as inspiration
What is the new american garden and what is its inspiration?
Inspired by painting by Helen Frankenhalter and someone else
-wild, natural, meadow like, no turf, semi-structured, good for all seasons
Name some of the component of the Arts and Crafts Movement?
-Greene and Gaudi
-roof terrace, abstract connections with nature
- Green Brothers: Gamble House--tiffany doors, hand-worked joinery (entire house built from joints, not held together with screws
-regionalism--simple, natural (used indigenous stones, organic, local materials
**using PURE materials
** front porch
How is the Arts and Crafts Movement expressed in urban design in the US?
What is meant by the term "CA Bungalow"? What is significant about the designs of these homes? What is meant by Mission Revival style?
-minimal planting, very california, close relationship with the building to the landscape
Who is Fletcher Steele? What is significant about his design exploration at Naumkeag? What is his influence in LA?
-incorporate plants contextual to the US rather than Europe
-designed in the art nouveau (rose garden at Naumkeg) and modernist style (blue stairs and N)
-student of Olmsted and Manning
What is significant about the design expression of Park Guell in Barcalona? Who designed it? What makes Park Guell such a unique design?
-Antonio Gaudi worked on it for 40 years
-used local materials and an organic concept of decoration
-spots for gathering
-local tile work
How is the design of classic arts and crafts gardens expressed in context with the architecture of buildings? way about the art deco garden/park?
the designers worked with the artists
-integrity of design materials, no nails of bolts were used
-all objects were crafted to be "beautiful"
What is modernism?
Dan Kiley, Garret Eckbo, and Fletcher Steele
-modernism is a break from the past and a search for new creative ideas
-reason over ignorance, science over superstition
-simple clean lines
-horizontal contrast with vertical
-stream-lined, interesting patterns, used of variety of plants and geometry
-rich is colors
What is Bauhaus?
-german design/architecture school that combined crafts and fine arts
-heavily influenced modernism in LA
-located in 3 cities: Weimar, Dessau, and Berlin
Who are the architects, Landscape architects and other designers that influence the Bauhaus movement?
Ludwig Miles Van der Rohe
Who are the following people and what are their contributions to LA?
they were people involved with the Harvard School of Design
-art of the people "Gardens in Modern Landscape"
-design should incorporate a new judgment of views
-empathetic strategy--look at eastern cultures
-art of the people, gardens not for power or prestige
-ambivalence toward history
-"father of modern CA garden"
-published "Gardens are for People"
-Martin Beach House
-Dewey Donnell Garden
*supreme master of modern garden
*the miller house
-air force academy in CO springs
-Farm Security Administration in Central CA
-Fulton Mall in Fresno
-Modernist Garden Explorations in SF
-UC Berkeley Department Landscape Architecture
-addressed social and environmental issues
-was expelled from Harvard because of radical ideas
-moved toward social theory of modernism
-protects the existing nature and trees and makes them part of the design
Freeway Park in Seattle
a garden structure meant to be walked or ridden through
thin, long waterway as part of the landscape architecture
a transparent building to house trees and other plants
-similar to a greenhouse
-used to raise citrus in environments that were unstable for citrus trees
sense of place, the center of the identity of space
-landscape designs should be adapted to the context in which they are located
Villa Noailles Garden
look at the geometry and the pattern
-incorporated in gardens either being enclosed by the forest or on the edge of the woods
-they are made in a circle because everyone is equal making it so there was no hierarchy or "head of the table"
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