Chapter 7 Review
Terms in this set (22)
Who is Martin Luther?
Augustinian friar writes his archbishop outlining his position on a number of theological issues. In his letter he included ninety-five theses. Luther was a university professor and a priest. Luther wanted to protest Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz wanting to be appointed a third dioceses by the pope (the archbishop owed the pope a lot of money). Pope granted the archbishop's representative permission to collect money in exchange for indulgences.
Who is Pope Leo X?
Born Giovanni de Medici. Born at Florence, December 11, 1475; died at Rome December 1, 1521. He received tonsure in 1482 and in 1483 was made Abbot of Front Douce.
What is a tonsure?
A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized and confirmed Christian is received into the clerical order by shearing of his hair and the investment with the surplice. The person tonsured becomes a partaker of the common privileges and obligations of the clerical state and is prepared for the reception of orders. The tonsure itself is not an ordination properly so called, nor a true order.
Name three factors that inflamed Luther to start the protest
1) Luther's protest was inflamed by the taxation in which Church leaders were involved.
2) By the fact that money was being taken out of Germany to finance projects in Rome
3) And by the perception that Church leaders were corrupt and decadent
What action by Martin led the way to the Reformation and why?
In 1517, Luther wrote to the bishop protesting in particular the selling of indulgences then occurring in Germany
What happened at the Diet of Worms?
Luther was asked to deny his teachings as being heretical. He said that in conscience he could not.
What decision was reached at the Peace of Augsburg assembly?
At the Peace of Augsburg an imperial assembly called by the emperor decided that local rulers would determine the religion for their citizens, either Catholicism or Lutheranism
Give two reason why Protestantism did not become strong in France
1) The civil government there exercised greater control over internal Church affairs
2) Catholic scholars at French universities were able to effectively regulate Protestant teachings
Name three factors that helped keep Spain Catholic
1) Church reforms initiated by Queen Isabella
2) The Inquisition
3) Exceptional spiritual figures in Spain at the time
What title did the pope give King Henry VIII of England? Why?
The pope named Henry VIII "Defender of the Faith" for his strong stand Protestantism
Who were the Two Heroes of the Reformation?
1) Erasmus: a dutch monk. great humanist. remained faithful to Catholicism while calling for reform. Reform without violent.
2) Thomas More: a catholic layman, martyr. Appointed chancellor of England by Henry VIII. Henry wanted important English subjects to sign an oath to acknowledge Henry as head of Church.
Who were the Protestant Reformers?
1) Ulrich Zwingli: Scripture sole source of truth and denied that Church leaders had special authority to interpret Scripture
Priests should be able to marry
Zwingli ends up ruling both Church and State (theocracy)
Suggested that "This is my body" should be interpreted as spiritual, not literally
2) John Calvin: French by birth
Drawn to reformed expression of Christianity in Switzerland
Writings used as a model for governance of Geneva. Calvin also held the belief of predestination. (We are destined by God for either salvation or eternal damnation) Calvin's message appealed to the growing middle class of northern Europe.
What is a Presbyterian form of leadership?
Presbyterian leadership means leadership by a group of elders
Protestants Dissent Focused on 3 Theological Principles
1) Scripture & Tradition(Catholic) or Scripture Alone
2) Faith & Good Works(Catholic) or Faith Alone
3) Ministerial Priesthood(Catholic) or the Priesthood of All Believers
What does the Protestant principle sola scriptura mean? What is the Catholic position on this principle
Sola scriptura means "Scripture alone". Protestantism looks to the Bible alone as source of truth, while Catholicism looks to both Scripture and the Tradition of the Church
Explain what justification by faith means in Catholicism and in Lutheranism.
Catholicism refers to God's gracious act of rendering a person holy as justification by faith. Since Catholicism views people as members of a community, the Church and sacraments play a role in that justification
In Lutheranism, justification tends to be viewed as a divine gift given to individual personas who recognize that they can do nothing to merit such a gift
St. Margaret Clitherow
She became catholic in 1574. Her husband and her created a "priest hole" in their home to hide priests who came to celebrate mass in secret. They sent their son to France to learn Catholicism in the English Catholic community in exile there. Her husband was questioned about the catholic activities of his wife and son. The sheriff of York invaded their home and found the priest hole, mass vestments, and sacred vessels hidden. SHe was arrested and she refused to plea. She kept secret of any info she had about the members of the Catholic community in York. The judged warned her that her death would be painful. She was pressed to death (a board was placed upon her and weights would be added over a period of three days after with a sharp stone would be places behind her until the weight would cause the stone to pierce her heart) She would not plea so the judge decided to put the stone under her on the first day so she died within thirteen minutes. She was declared a saint and martyr in 1970.
What the difference between the Catholic and Protestant priesthood?
Protestantism speaks only of the "priesthood of all Christians" whereas Catholicism includes a separate and distinct role for specially ordained priests
What were the two main goals of the Council of Trent
The two main goals of the Council of Trent were to address abuses in the Church and to clarify Catholic teaching to meet the Protestant challenges
Name four contributions that Ignatius Loyola and the Society of Jesus made to Catholicism?
Founded by Ignatius Loyola, the Society of Jesus developed a set of spiritual exercises, established many educational institutions throughout the world, helped hold off the spread of Protestantism, and served as missionaries in non-Christian lands
Name two groups that helped foster Catholic spirituality during the Reformation period?
Two groups who fostered Catholic spirituality during the Reformation period were the Jesuits and mystics
What two Spanish Carmelite saints became Doctors of the Church for their writings on mysticism?
Saint Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross