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Metabolism and Respiration Rate
Terms in this set (63)
Why do all living organisms require energy?
To grow and reproduce
What is anabolism?
It refers to those processes where complex substances are synthesized from simpler substances
Protein synthesis is what type of reaction?
Anabolic reaction, which requires ATP
What is catabolism?
It refers to those processes where complex substances are broken down into simpler ones in order to release energy.
Cellular respiration is what type of reaction?
Catabolic reaction, which transfers energy from complex molecules to ATP.
What is metabolism referred to?
The total of all biochemical reactions
How can metabolic rate be determined?
By measuring oxygen consumption
What are the several factors in which metabolic rate depends on?
1. Whether or not an organism controls its body temperature from within
4. amount of insulation
What do all organisms use to release energy from their food consumption?
What is the energy release in cellular respiration stored as?
What is Aerobic Cellular respiration?
It contains oxygen as a reactant and produces several times more energy than anaerobic cellular respiration.
What is Anaerobic Cellular respiration?
It doesn't require oxygen as a reactant.
What is the formula for Aerobic Cellular Respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP
Where does aerobic respiration occur?
Within the mitochondria,"powerhouse" of both plant and animal cells.
What does the mitochondria use within to produce energy, which comes from the atmosphere?
What is thermoregulation?
The idea of how organisms regulate their body temperature.
Which are some of the mechanisms used to thermoregulate?
5. arrector pilli muscles
What are Ectotherms?
Animals that rely on external sources of heat to regulate their body temperature.
What are some examples of ectotherms, which are often incorrectly called "cold-blooded"?
How does the body temperature of an ectotherm function?
As ambient temperatures fall, so does the body temperature of an ectotherm; therefore at low ambient temperature, ectotherms may become lethargic.
What are Endotherms, which are often referred to as "warm-blooded"?
Animals that can produce heat from within to control their core body temperature.
How do endotherms respond to decreasing ambient termperatures?
They increase metabolic heat production, increasing their body temperature.
What is the result of endotherms being able to regulate their own body temperatures through metabolic heat production?
They are able to remain active over a wide range of environmental temperature, which means they can hunt, grow, and reproduce over a wider geographical range than that of ectotherms.
What is a respirometer?
A device that measures the rate at which oxygen is used
What is the respirometer chamber?
The glass jar in which the mouse is located, which must be airtight so that as the mouse used the oxygen, the air pressure in the chamber changes.
What does a manometer measure?
The air pressure change in the respirometer chamber.
What is a manometer?
A U-tube that is partially filled with a fluid, this blue fluid measures the difference in the pressure between the two sides of the U-tube.
What does it mean when the blue fluid in the manometer represent when the fluid levels are equal on both sides?
It means that the air pressure on both sides is equal.
What does it mean when the pressure on one side is greater than on the other side?
The fluid level will be lower in the tube that has the greatest air pressure.
How long do you let the mouse sit in the bucket of ice before calculating its respiration rate?
What is the formula to calculate respiration rate?
Oxygen Consumed (mL)/ Weight of Animal (g) x Average time (min) = Respiration Rate
What is the relationship between oxygen consumption, metabolic rate, and ATP?
When the mouse was at homeostasis his metabolic rate was higher and therefore consumed more oxygen, and needed more to produce more energy as well.
What caused the pressure in the manometer to change during the exercise?
The amount of oxygen in the manometer in comparison with the carbon dioxide is what caused the pressure to change during the exercise.
During cellular respiration, oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced. Why didn't the carbon dioxide exhaled by the mouse replace the oxygen injected into the respiration chamber?
The carbon dioxide produced wasn't replacing the oxygen used because of the placement of an ascarite in the chamber, to absorb all of the carbon dioxide in the exercise to see how much oxygen was being used/ needed.
Why wasn't the consumption of oxygen by the mouse consistent at both ambient temperatures?
It wasn't consumed the same because the mouse's metabolic rate was slowed down due to the decrease in temperature and it was using the oxygen and its own body to remain at homeostasis.
Which ambient temperature stimulated the greatest respiration rate?
When the mouse was at 5 degrees Celsius it had the greatest respiration rate of 0.144
What was observed about the mouse's behavior when it was exposed to a cold temperature?
The mouse began to shiver and become more agitated trying to get out of the bucket desperately, but once he reached a more stable state, he was returning to to being calm.
What caused the variation in respiration rate from one student group to another?
The set-up of the respiration chamber, the sizes of the mice, how long one waited to let the mice settle.
What would happen to oxygen consumption of the mouse if the ambient temperature was increased to 50 degrees Celsius? (F= 1.8C + 32)
The mice would need to consume a drastic amount of oxygen, and that would increase their metabolic rate and probably they would reach a point were they could pass out.
How would the respiration rate of an elephant compare to that of a mouse?
The respiration rate of an elephant would be so much slower because he wouldn't loss his heat as quickly as the mouse.
Explain the statement: "A mouse uses more oxygen than an elephant."
The mouse uses more oxygen than an elephant means that it has a higher respiration rate because it's smaller and losses its energy faster, so it needs to constantly be heating itself.
There is a functional limit to the volume of a cell in relationship to its surface area. The diameter of a cat's RBC is 5.8 microns and the diameter of a horse's RBC is 5.7 microns. Why are the RBCs of a horse not many times larger than those of a cat?
Both the cat and the bourse are endotherms, and therefore can maintain their heat much better and don't need to be constantly working for homeostasis.
How do you think the diameter of an elephant's RBC compares with that of a mouse?
The diameter of an elephant's RBC is much greater than that of a mouse, and hence why they need more oxygen to heat up their bodies much faster.
What is a calorie?
A unit of heat energy measurement; the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one gram of water (one mL of water).
What are Nutritional Calories?
One thousand calories equals one nutritional calorie (kilocalorie)
How can calorie be measured?
By burning a specific amount of food in an apparatus called a calorimeter
During cellular respiration, the body "burns" what at a low temperature by using enzymes?
Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
How much of the energy released in the process of calories is stored in ATP molecules, while the rest escapes as heat?
Where are the excess calories stored?
Liver, muscles, and adipose tissue
To limit cardiovascular disease, the American Heart Association recommends limiting fat intake to how much of the total daily Calories ingested?
What is the difference between a calorie and a Calorie?
A Calorie is the equivalent of a thousand calories
How many Calories are in a kilocalorie?
1 Calorie = 1 kilocalorie
Why do fat molecules contain more than twice as many Calories than carbohydrate or protein molecules?
They have 2x as many calories because it takes more fat to reach one gram than the other two since it's considered to be the less dense form of energy storage.
Why do cellulose molecules proved satiety so quickly?
They provide fiber in our digestive system.
Why are cellulose molecules not digestible?
Our body doesn't have the accurate enzymes in our body to break the cellulose molecules down.
Why do starch molecules contain a lot of Calories?
They are made up of thousands of monosaccharides so it takes up a lot more energy to break it down.
How does a high fat diet increase the risk of Atherosclerosis?
It increases the possibility of fatty tissue developing around arteries and causes blood clotting.
How does a high fat diet increase the risk of Hypertension?
The blood will be forced to beat faster causing higher levels of BP all due to the fatty tissues developing.
How does a high fat diet increase the risk of Heart Attack?
When arteries are being blocked and BP increases, the heart is working hard and eventually gets tires and gives in.
When the temperature decreases what happens to the metabolism of an ectotherm?
Metabolism decreases as well to maintain homeostasis
When the temperature decreases what happens to the metabolism of an endotherm?
Metabolism increases to maintain homeostasis
What is thermogenesis
What does ascarite do?
It absorbs the oxygen and water (water vapor) from the respiration chamber.
This set is often in folders with...
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