American Pageant Key Terms & People to Know Chapter 3
Terms in this set (35)
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by God
A radical reorientation of one's whole life away from sin and evil and toward God. This is a central element of Christ's preaching, of the Church's ministry of evangelization, and of the Sacrament of Penance.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times
The idea that faith alone, not deeds, is necessary for salvation
The constitution of the Connecticut River colony drawn up in 1639, it established a government controlled in democratic style by the "substantial" citizens.
1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
In the 1660's England restricted the colonies; They couldn't trade with other countries. The colonies were only allowed to trade with England.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
vast tracks of land along the Hudson River in New Netherlands granted to wealthy promoters in exchange for bringing fifty settlers to the property
Regulation that prohibited certain private activities people considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol on Sundays
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
c1580-1661, North American Indian leader: sachem of the Wampanoag tribe; negotiator of peace treaty with the Pilgrims 1621 (father of King Philip).
Chief of the Wampanoag Indians who led an attack on villages throughout New England. This was the largest conflict in 1675, called King Phillip's War (he was nicknamed "King Phillip")
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England
He was hesitant to come into England from the Netherlands and immediately take over the thrown but most of the British army took his side so it was easy to make James II flee. During his rule, he passed the Act of Toleration in 1689 which garanteed religious tolerance to Protestants. stopped catholic rule. He also placed more power towards the Parliament and stopped many of the illegal activities that James II was doing.
(1689-1694) This daughter of James II came to the throne and ruled jointly with her husband and 1st cousin, William of Orange, when James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution.
Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Duke of York
King Charles the Second gave the colony to his brother (this name) who renamed it New York instead of New Netherland/New Amsterdam
Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.