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AP European History Flashcards
Terms in this set (256)
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle east, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after WWI.
One of several important physicists of the 20th century whose work led to the splitting of the atom. He also was instrumental in the Manhattan Project (development of the atomic bomb).
Mary Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
National Assembly proclamation that men are born free and equal before the law. Also granted freedom of religion, speech, and the press. Asserted that all men have a right to seek public office and have a fair trial.
In 1814 a coalition of Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria met and agreed to restore the pre-Napoleonic balance of power as well as to restructure boundaries.
The policy, begun in 1947, that the US would not challenge existing Communist nations' right to exist, but would actively and militarily opposed any further expansion of communism. This policy of containment was followed for decades.
Son of Mary Queen of Scots. Ruled England and Scotland together until 1625. Believed in divine-right rule and Anglicanism, which led to conflict with the largely Puritan Parliament. Closest relative to Elizabeth I at the time of her death.
In 1905, a large but peaceful group of poor Russians marched to the Winter Palace to present a petition to Nicolas II. Soldiers opened fire on the group, and many (including women and children) were killed or injured; this further reduced trust in the Czar.
One of Napoleon's most substantial achievements was the Civil Code of 1804, which centralized the disorganized body of French laws, safeguarded property rights, and upheld conservative attitudes towards women and labor organizations/
Helsinki Accords - Helsinki Final Set
Meeting of the US and most European nations in Helsinki to increase efforts for mutual cooperation. Lasted from 1972-5. One important outcome was the agreement that existing political boundaries would not be altered by military force.
Otto von Bismarck
Bismarck, master of Realpolitik, was chancellor of Prussia from 1861-71. He was devoted to the Hohenzollerns (Prussian ruling family) and the unification of Germany, which occurred in 1871. He continued to serve as Chancellor until he was fired in 1890 by William II.
Just before his death in 1740, Charles VI release this sanction. It urged all constituent Austrian lands to allow his daughter, Maria Theresa, to inherit Austria and other Habsburg lands, despite the fact that she was a woman.
Peter the Great
Romanov ruler of Russia from 1682-1725. He brought Western European ideas to Russia, improved the Russian army, achieved control of the Orthodox Church, dominated the nobility, and transformed Russia into a major world power.
Stuart son of James I and King of England, 1625-49. Beheaded by Roundheads at the end of the Civil War. Charles fought with the Puritan Parliament over his war expenses related to Scotland and Ireland, advancing his belief in the divine right of kings, and marrying a Catholic, French princess.
Seven Years' War
War from 1756-63. Began as the "French and Indian War" in North America (in 1754). Evolved into a war on the European continent resulting from the alliance structure developed in the Diplomatic Revolution and ending with Russia's surprise switch to an alliance with Prussia and a confirmation of Prussia's hold on Silesia.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Born in Austria in 1756, Mozart was a musical child prodigy. Until his early death in 1791, he produced masterpieces in almost every genre. Among his famous works are "The Magic Flute" and "The Marriage of Figaro"
1801 agreement with the Pope engineered by Napoleon to end the rift after the 1790 Civil Constitution of the Clergy. This recognized France as largely Catholic but guaranteed religious freedom. The Church agreed to give up claims to lands the revolutionaries had seized and sold.
The term means "burnt offering" and refers to the Naz efforts (1933-45) to exterminate the Jews in Europe. Of the 11 million European Jews, 6 million were murdered.
Tennis Court Oath
When the Third Estate was locked out of the Estates General meeting and declared on May 5, 1789 (on a Versailles tennis court) that they were the National Assembly, they invited the other two estates to join them and decreed that a constitution would be written before they would adjourn.
Roundheads and Cavaliers
Roundheads were supporters of Parliament, including non-Anglican Protestants and Puritans, while Cavaliers (or royalists) were supporters of the King - largely Roman Catholics, Anglicans, or nobles.
This phrase, coined by Winston Churchill, in a 1946 speech, referred to the dangers of the increasing Soviet control and domination of Eastern Europe.
Austrian daughter of Empress Maria Theresa. Married Louis XVI to strengthen Franco-Austrian relations. Became the most hated woman in France because of her ostentation and refusal to support reforms. Guillotined in October 1793.
American doctor who invented the polio vaccines in 1953. Polio crippled and killed millions worldwide, and the successful vaccine virtually eliminated the scourge.
The German philosopher who postulated that experience dictates human knowledge. He also said morality rests on the "categorical imperative".
Egyptian leader who began a policy of cooperation with the US and Western Europe. Under his leadership, Egypt was the first Middle Eastern nation to recognize Israel. He was assassinated in 1981 by a group of fundamentalist officers.
Flemish scientist who pioneered the study of anatomy and provided detailed overviews of the human body and its systems.
Practice of the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages wherein Church leaders sold high Church positions. This practice was used to gain power for sons who would not inherit family wealth and land because of birth order.
The phrase used by the Nazis for their goal of exterminating all the Jews in Europe. An estimated 6 of the 11 million European Jews were murdered.
Euphemism given to genocide committed in the 1990s in former Yugoslavia. Thi was a Serbian policy directed against Muslims in the region. Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic was arrested and awaits trial at The Hague.
Cold War mayor of West Berlin who served as Chancellor of West Germany (1969-74). He instituted a policy of greater cooperation with eastern communist nations.
Tudor Queen of England. Succeeded Mary I in 1558 and ruled until 1603. In addition to leading the defeat of the Spanish Armada and developing England into a world power, she strengthened Protestantism. Daughter of Henry VIII.
Political and economic movement that emphasizes nationalism and militarism with a state-controlled economy. Fascism was linked to the political parties that controlled Germany and Italy before and during WWII. Personal rights are limited and obedience to the state is paramount.
German philosopher who rejected traditional rational philosophy. He claimed God was dead and that there were "supermen" who would come to govern and run societies over ordinary men. Died in 1889.
A religious order known as the Society of Jesus, created to strengthen support of the Church during the Counter-Reformation. Founded by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534, these "soldiers of the Counter-Reformation" were committed to doing good deeds in order to achieve salvation.
The European inventor of the printing press, which allowed books to be printed quickly and economically. He used his invention to print copies of the Bible. This invention aided the spread of Renaissance and Reformation ideas throughout Europe.
In 1945, Stalin, Churchill, and FDR met to discuss postwar issues. Stalin was the winner, gaining a pro-Soviet government in charge of Poland, the division of Germany, and territory concessions in Asia as well.
Type of government in which the state is in almost complete control of its citizens' lives. Individual rights are virtually nonexistent; the welfare of the state is all-important. Stalin and Hitler are considered totalitarian rulers.
Period of increased cooperation between the US and the USSR. This was undertaken by President Nixon and his secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, in the 1970s. Detente was a factor in the end of the Cold war and of the USSR.
English humanist, contemporary of Erasmus, and author of "Utopia", in which he condemned governments as corrupt, and private property. As the first law chancellor of England, he was late executed by Henry VIII when he refused to agree that the King was the supreme head of the English Church.
Kaiser William II
Kaiser who began ruling in 1888. He determined to expand German influence and greatly increased the size of Germany's military. He led Germany into WWI and abdicated the throne in 1918.
English physician who used lab experiments to study the circulation of blood and its flow through arteries and veins as well as the heart.
First five years of Napoleon's rule as dictator after his 1799 coup d'etat in which he had sole power to propose new laws that the legislature could only approve or reject.
War of the Roses
War between the York and Lancaster houses in England for control of the English crown. The white rose symbolized the York House and the red rose symbolized the Lancaster House. By 1485, Henry Tudor of Lancaster defeated King Richard III of York. Tudor set up a strong monarchy in England.
The region north of the Greek peninsula, home to various and frequently violent ethnic groups. WWI began here (sarajevo) and it was the region of intense ethnic violence in the 1990s. Tension among Slavic people and between Christians and Muslims also have led to war.
Frederick William I
Son of Prussian King Frederick I who ruler from 1713-40. He channeled royal funds toward militarizing Prussia, creating an efficient tax system, and establishing compulsory education.
The Czar liberator who issued a proclamation "freeing" the serfs. Assassinated in 1881.
John Calvin's belief that at the beginning of time, God had preselected who among all people would be saved and have salvation, a group known as the "elect". This group was expected to follow the highest moral standards and be completely dedicated to God's wishes.
Disraeli, a great leader of Britain's Conservative Party, held the office of Prime Minister in 1868 and again from 1874-80. He was a strong supporter of Britain's imperialist ambitions, but also supported a policy of liberal social reforms.
During WWII, Allied leaders decided to establish an international organization devoted to promoting peace. The UN was formally established in 1945.
English Bill of Rights
1689 document declaring Parliament would choose who ruled England, that the ruler could not tax without Parliamentary consent, that the ruler could not suspend Parliament, that the ruler was subject to all laws, that Parliament was to meet frequently, that MPs were guaranteed freedom of speech, and that cruel and unusual punishment was illegal.
Dutch scholar known as "Prince of Northern Humanists." Lived from 1465-1536. He criticized the lack of spirituality in the Church in "Praise of Folly", which ridicules the superstition, ignorance, and vice of Christians on pilgrimages, in fasting, and the Church's interpretation of the Bible.
When Parliament invited, in 1600, the Stuart son of Charles I, Charles II, to return to England to rule, thereby ending the Cromwellian republic.
Fleet of 130 ships launched by Spain's Catholic Philip II to conquer England during the time of Elizabeth I. England was victorious in defeating the Spanish, who never again posed a decided threat against England.
British feminist of the 18th century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Woman"
Italian navigator who crossed the Atlantic several times and officially called the land thought by Columbus to be Asia the "New World". Later a German cartographer renamed this land "America" in honor of Vespucci's work.
After WWII, Berlin was divided into eastern and western sectors, with the USSR controlling the east and Britain, France, and the US controlling the west. From 1948-9, the Soviets used a blockade against West Berlin. However, Western nations used airplanes to supply West Berlin, and the USSR eventually ceased the blockade.
English scientist and author of works explaining the law of universal gravitation and means of measuring motion. His work inspired the notion of natural and universal laws ordering and arranging life.
Council of Trent
Summoned by Pope Paul III to try and define Catholic doctrine and thwart Protestant attacks on Catholic beliefs. These meetings from 1545-63 did not reform the doctrines but did end several corrupt practices criticized by Reformers within the Church and reasserted traditional Catholic doctrine.
In 1688, Parliament gave the crown to James II's Protestant daughter, Mary II, and her Protestant husband, William III, as joint rulers rather than to James II's Catholic son. It was a bloodless and "glorious" transfer of power.
Leader of India's independence movement. He led the Congress Party, notable for its focus on nonviolent protest. His influence was confirmed when India gained independence from Britain in 1947.
Simone de Beauvoir
French author of "The Second Sex". She argued for women's rights and was also a prominent figure in the existentialist movement. Died in 1986.
Criticized the Church and the corruption in its clergy in the 1300s. Challenged papal infallibility and called for the power of the clergy to be supplanted with the Bible and individual interpretation of it by all Catholics. Together with Jan Hus he set the stage for the Protestant Reformation.
German architect Walter Gropius (1883-1969) founded the Bauhaus School of Architecture. He favored clean, streamlined buildings. Other pioneers of this "International Style" were Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright.
Florentine diplomat and historian who lived from 1469-1527. Wrote the famous essay, "The Prince", which described his view of realistic government with a strong leader concerned only with political power and success and embracing the ideal of seeking to be feared rather than loved by the masses.
Treaty of Westphalia
1648 treaty ending the Thirty Years' War. France gained Alsace; the Netherlands and Switzerland gained independence from the HRE; and the German princes were given near independence from the Empire.
The radical Russian Communists led by Vladimir Lenin who established Communist rule in Russia. Nicknamed the "Reds."
Polish labor union formed in 1980 after major protests against the Communist labor system in place at the time. In 1981 it was shut down by Polish Communist leaders, but regained strength in 1989 and openly opposed the Soviet-backed party.
German word for "living space". The Nazis claimed the German people deserved more room to expand and used this as a justification for invading neighboring nations.
Wife of Percy B. Shelley who is most famous for her romantic novel, "Frankenstein". Its message was that man should not try and imitate God or challenge nature.
Churchill (1874-1965) held numerous government offices, but is most famous for his service as Prime Minister from 1940-5 and 1951-5. His stirring speeches and refusal to surrender during the darkest days of WWII inspired the free world. He advocated strengthening ties between the US and Britain.
Beer Hall Putsch
In 1923 the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in Munich. It was a total failure, and Hitler received a brief prison sentence during which time he wrote "Mein Kampf".
This rebellion attempted to overthrow the Qing dynasty in China. Hong Xiuquan, who claimed relation to Jesus, led it. It was defeated in 1864 after invention by European nations.
Agreement proposed by American Secretary of State Frank Kellogg in 1927. An outgrowth of WWI, the pact denounced war as a way to resolve conflict and was endorsed by over 50 countries within 5 years.
He was the British founder of the Methodists. He stressed the need for piety, devotion, and acceptance of one's lot. Died in 1791.
Italian explorer commissioned by Queen Isabella of Spain to find a shorter route to Asia by sailing westward. In 1492, Columbus sailed on the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria going west across the Atlantic. He landed on what he called the Indies but were actually islands in the Caribbean.
Gen. Francisco Franco
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany). Franco ruled until his death in 1975.
A period of economic innovation that was a result of colonization and exploration between the late 15th and 18th centuries. The Commercial Revolution saw the rise of joint-stock companies and the growth of mercantilism.
The National Convention
Governed the French Republic from 1792-5, members were elected through universal male suffrage and became divided along political lines. Declared the end of the monarchy. Brought Louis XVI to trial and executed him and his wife.
One of the artistic giants of the 20th century. Helped found the Cubist and Abstract movements. During his life (1881-1973) he worked in various media and is noted for scores of important works. His painting "Guernica" is one of the most powerful anti-war expressions of the modern era.
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin in eastern Russia. Dissidents were sent to the camps, where conditions were generally brutal. Millions died.
Officials of the French absolute rulers who were dispensed as region representatives into French provinces to consolidate the Crown's control.
Essentially the USSR's response to NATO's creation. The Pact began in 1955, with European communist nations pledging mutual military support to one another. It ended with the collapse of the USSR in 1991.
After the massive destruction in Europe following WWII, the US proposed an economic plan in 1947 to help restore the region. Aid was provided to any European nation that promised cooperation (Soviet-bloc nations did not participate). The plan was very successful.
Ruler of France (1774-92). Successor of Louis XV. Married Marie Antoinette, and nearly bankrupted France by supporting the American Revolution. Guillotined in January 1793 by the orders of the National Convention.
Movement within the 17th century Catholic Church. Jansenism opposed the Jesuits and advocated that humans could only achieve salvation through divine grace, not through good works.
Hohenzollern ruler of Brandenburg, Prussia, after the end of the Thirty Years' War. Known as "the Great Elector" who improved and rebuilt the state.
"Night of broken glass," occurring in November 1938. This marked the beginning of overtly violent Nazi attacks against the Jewish population in Germany.
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-74 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.
Margaret Sanger and Marie Stoopes
Early crusaders for women's reproductive rights.
Stuart son of Charles I and ruler of England from 1660-85. Known as the "Merry Monarch" because of his restoration of a more liberal culture after Cromwell's conservative republic.
Radical Protestants in England who believed Henry VIII did not take extreme enough measures in merely creating the Anglican Church. They favored "purifying" the new Anglican Church of all similarities to the Catholic Church.
An artistic movement in art, literature, and music popular in the 19th century. Mystic, exotic, and foreign topics were popular, as were ancient and medieval history and topics like the glory of nature.
Self-proclaimed Russian holy man who became confidante to Czarina Alexandria, wife of Nicholas II. He reputedly was able to help the heir, Alexis, who suffered from hemophilia. His unsavory reputation and drunken behavior led to rumors that his relationship with the Czarina was inappropriate. Murdered in 1916.
The philosophical belief that the universe is unknowable. Numerous philosophers adopted this thesis, but they each reacted to it in different ways. Those involved in the movement include Soren Kierkegaard (considered the founder) and Jean-Paul Sartre.
Holy Roman Empire
Political affiliation of Germanic and central European city states and principalities to perpetuate Latin Christendom. Did not include England and France. Emperors after the 14th century were elected by seven electors representing the clergy and important participants.
Economic philosophy a "hands off" approach. Advocates that governments should not in any way interfere with business, as the marketplace provides an "invisible hand" to steer the economy. An early proponent was Adam Smith.
Treaty of Versailles
One of the treaties of Paris (1919) that ended WWI. It incensed Germans because of its harsh terms for reparations, territory, and control.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Agreement between Spain and Portugal to divide from north to south the Atlantic Ocean so that the two nations would not be competing for the same lands in their zealous explorations. Spain was to explore the lands west of the line, while Portugal was to have the eastern region.
In 19th century Britain, some workers, accurately predicting that the factory system would replace them, joined forces and attacked factories and destroyed machines. Called the Luddites, their movement lasted from 1811-16.
German philosopher and author who founded the field of sociology. He also stressed the importance of the Protestant work ethic in industrial society.
English philosopher and author of "Leviathan", in which he explained that a state of chaos and war existed prior to a social contract forming a government, which should be led by a sovereign invested with absolute power in exchange for protection of group safety and social order.
Louis XIV, The Sun King
Louis XIV of France ruled from 1643-1715, the longest reign in French history. He constructed Versailles, believed in divine right of kings, engaged in many wars, and established absolutism in France.
Count Camillo di Cavour
Prime Minister to Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont. Although he considered himself liberal, he was willing to use deception to promote national goals.
Dutch East India Company
Founded in 1602, this joint-stock company had total control over trading (mainly in spices) between the East Indies and the Netherlands.
Enacted in 1815, these laws protected British agriculture by polacing strict limits on the amount of foreign grain to be imported. They resulted in keeping basic food prices artificially high until their repeal in 1846.
Battle on June 18, 1815. The allied powers under the direction of the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon, who then abdicated to the Bourbon monarch and was again exiled, this time to St. Helena, where he died in 1821.
Successfully invented a locomotive engine in 1815, which revolutionized rail transportation.
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries was formed in 19660 to limit oil production. In the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, the group began to use oil production and supply for political reasons.
Chief minister to Henry IV's weak son, Louis XIII of France. He worked to establish absolute rule by weakening the nobles and Huguenots and employing intendants.
Frederick II (the Great)
Son of Prussian King Frederick William I and ruler of Prussia from 1740-86. He seized Silesia from Austria, starting the War of Austrian Succession and then the Diplomatic Revolution.
Tories and Whigs
The largely Anglican Tories believed in a hereditary monarchy and favored allowing Charles II's Catholic brother, James, to become king after the Restoration. The Whigs opposed this because of his Catholicism and his absolutist tendencies.
This movement, a reaction to the incredible poverty seen in the industrial era, postulated that workers would live together in a clean, safe environment and work cooperatively. Frenchman Charles Fourier was the author of this ideal.
William of Orange
Ruler of the Netherlands who led a revolt for independence against Habsburg Philip II of Spain.
Son of Charles V and a devout Catholic, he was the Habsburg ruler of Spain from 1556-98. He led the Spanish Counter-Reformation but failed to invade Protestant England with his Spanish Armada.
Treaty of Utrecht
Ended the War of Spanish Succession in 1713, recognizing France's Philip V as King of Spain, but prohibited the unification of the French and Spanish monarchies. England gained profitable lands in North America from France and the asiento from Spain.
In Britain, due to farming improvements, large landowners began fencing in their property. This displaced many small farmers, who generally migrated to cities or abroad. The Enclosure Movement provided the labor needed for the industrialization of Britain.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
He was the heir of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. He was assassinated in Sarajevo in 1914. This event sparked a series of action that led to the beginning of WWI.
A British author who believed that population growth was a great danger. He believed that it was impossible for agricultural output to keep pace with the expanding population and that social, political, and economic crises would ensue if population growth was not checked.
People who favored ending the slave trade and slavery.
A firm believer in British rights to expand control across Africa. He successfully helped Britain gain control of South Africa and Rhodesia (named after him). Lived from 1853-1902
An Austrian journalist (1860-1904) who called for the creation of a Jewish homeland. This movement, called Zionism, spread throughout Europe and the US.
Constitution of 1791
National Assembly's constitution that limited the king's authority and divided the government into three branches: judicial, executive, and legislative. The resulting government proved weak and fell prey to radical control.
2nd Industrial Revolution
This term refers to the second wave of the late 18th century industrial movement, which was focused generally in the US and Germany. This second wave, with movement from domestic systems of production too factory systems, involved heavy industry and innovations such as mass production.
Decline of Spain
The rise in population coupled with inflation led to a weakening of Spanish industry and emigration. The expulsion of Jews and Moors in 1492 also contributed to the decline, as they were productive members of the economy.
Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England. Laud tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer. He was later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
The Shiite leader who led the Iranian 1979 revolution, overthrowing the pro-Western government of the Shah. Iran would become radically anti-Western under his leadership.
He and Karl Marx coauthored "The Communist Manifesto" (1848), after which they continued to write about the need for and work toward socialist changes. Engels was born in Germany in 1820 but lived most of his life in England. He died in 1895
The Van Eyck Brothers
Flemish painters who applied great attention to the details in their work, particularly in their capturing of human facial expressions. Their altarpiece for a church in Ghent captures the expressions of Adam and Eve in a way that is more realistic than the symbolic depiction of the Middle Ages artists.
Edict of Nantes
Decreed by French King Henry IV in 1598, it granted Huguenots limited political freedoms and the freedom of worship and brought temporary civilian peace. Very unpopular in France among Catholics. Revoked by Louis XIV in 1685, leading to a massive emigration of French Huguenots.
French Calvinists, including many from the French nobility wishing to challenge the authority of the Catholic monarch.
A series of rebellions against monarchial rule in France, lasting from 1649-52.
Policy of controlling colonies by using local rulers to run the day-to-day affairs of the colonies. Indirect rule allowed local officials to keep power as long as they operated under the orders from the "mother" nation.
After France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian war, the liberal National Guard rebuffed the Third Republic's effort to disarm them and formed an independent Paris, a government called the Paris Commune. The conservative president of France, Adolphe Thiers, sent more troops to capture Paris and a bloodbath ensued. The Communards were defeated.
Led the French army at Verdun and eventually became Commander of the French Armies. He served as Prime Minister in 1940. When German forces defeated France, he took control of the Vichy area in 1942. Because of his cooperation with the Nazis, he was arrested and imprisoned until his death in 1951.
Renaissance scholars of classical Greek and Roman works of literature and thought who were great advocates of liberal arts education and the importance of the individual.
Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty signed in 1972 between the US and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
Italian scientist who invented the telescope. This enable him to reach new astronomical observations, such as that not every heavenly body revolved around Earth. His later work formed the basis for the study of objects in motion, or physics.
Bismarck's political policy of doing whatever is necessary to promote the power of the state.
Ludwig von Beethoven
Beethoven (1770-1827) is most known for his powerful nine symphonies. He also introduced innovations in the type and number of instruments used in performances.
Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa and thus found the route to the Indian Ocean. This helped establish an overseas trade route from Europe to India and the East Indies, which provided Europeans with the cargoes of jewels and spices they so desired.
Monk who was commissioned by Pope Leo X to raise money for the Church and was sent throughout northern Germany to sell indulgences. This outraged Martin Luther and played a role in the start of the Protestant Reformation.
Fought from 1853-6. The Crimean War pitted the Ottoman Empire (backed by Britain, France, and Sardinia-Piedmont) against Russia. Russia wanted to extend into Ottoman-held territory, and Britain and France objected. Russia was defeated and all parties suffered significant casualties.
The common speech of the masses. They were the alternative to Latin, the language of the learned. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of vernacular literature, though Latin remained the universal tongue of scholarship, politics, and the Church in Western Europe until after the Middle Ages and the Reformation.
Olympe de Gouges
Parisian who led a group of women to create the "Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizenesses", which appealed (unsuccessfully) to the National Assembly for women's equality.
English philosopher and author of "Two Treatises of Government", in which he argued that individuals have natural rights to life, liberty, and property that could not be violated by a political leader in a social contract. He believed that governments existed only to protect these natural rights, and any government failing to do so should be overthrown.
An esteemed French writer who sought to integrate psychological elements, especially regarding suppressed memories, into literature. His most famous work is the multi-volume "Remembrance of Things Past" (1913-27).
Franciscan monk, English philosopher, and scientist in the 1500s who advocated for a system of scientific experimentation in seeking truth rather than accepting without question traditional Church and ancient beliefs. This led to the development of the scientific method.
Epidemic that broke out in 1347 due to growing urbanization and unsanitary conditions. It spread along major trade routes, and may have killed nearly one third of Europeans between 1347-51. Also known as the Bubonic Plague.
Second leg of the three-part Triangular Trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas in which African slaves traveled across the Atlantic. The passage was cruel and fatal for many.
From 1914-8, both the Allied and Central Powers quickly became entrenched, especially in the West. Due to massive artillery strikes and attrition, both sides relied on warfare in the trenches. The trench network stretched from Belgium to southern France.
Martin Luther's list of complaints and reforms. He accused Johann Tetzel of wrongdoing in his selling of indulgences and asking people to pay for false promises of exoneration of their sins. Luther's protests spread throughout Europe, igniting the Reformation.
Hundred Years' War
War between England and France which lasted from 1337-1453. King Edward III of England claimed the French throne despite France's appointment of Philip VI of Flanders as King. France officially won the war and expelled the English from all French lands except Calais.
Fascist leader of Italy from 1922-45. Originally a Socialist, he was an early member of the Black Shirts, Italy's fascist party. He led the overthrow of the Italian government in 1922 and led Italy through WWII. Assassinated in 1945.
In 1929, the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange triggered a virtually worldwide financial crisis that came to be known as the Great Depression. Extensive trade barriers between industrial nations also contributed to the problem.
Lenin led the Bolshevik (Communist) Revolution in Russia in 1917. He would lead the Communists to victory and rule until his death in 1924.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, formed in 1949, was the West's military organization designed to discourage further Soviet expansion and to counter the Warsaw Pact.
After WWI, Germany was forced to pay reparation to the Allies. Germany was not able to keep up payments, and in 1924 an American, Charles Dawes, reorganized the repayment plan. The US also made loans to Germany as part of the plan.
The Polish scientist who worked in the 1500s. He abandoned the largely accepted geocentric theory that the planets moved around Earth and advocated the heliocentric theory, which stated that the center of the universe was the sun.
An Austrian doctor credited as being the father of psychology. He studied and wrote extensively about the importance of dreams and developed psychoanalysis.
Diet of Worms
Special imperial council in Worms, Germany, to which Martin Luther was summoned after his excommunication in 1521. Luther was ordered to abandon his revolutionary ideas, which he refused to do so, so he was banished from the empire. Luther was then sheltered in Saxony.
The Hundred Days
When Napoleon escaped from exile at Elba and returned to France in March 1815, he led an army into PAris, causing Louis XVIII to flee and Napoleon to rule France again until Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Prussia sent troops to stop him.
One of Britain's greatest novelists. His works often sought to show the suffering of the poor in industrial Britain, and include "Oliver Twist" and "David Copperfield".
Mathematician who used models, observations, and mathematics to prove the heliocentric theory developed by Copernicus. His work was later supported by Galileo.
Justification of Faith Alone
Luther's ideas revolved around this central tenet that people were led to salvation only through inner faith in God, rather than by participating in worldly rituals and good deeds.
English scientist who suggested the theories of the survival of the fittest and of evolution. Author of "The Origin of the Species".
Prince Metternich was an ultra-conservative Austrian chancellor. The system bearing his name sought to restore pre-Napoleonic rulers to their thrones, restore the European balance of power, and repress liberal and democratic ideas. Metternich was forced to resign in 1848.
French philosopher and mathematician who lived from 1596-1650. His "Discourse on Method" states that all assumptions had to be proven on the basis of known facts. He wrote "I think, therefore I am." His method of questioning was built upon strict, orderly logical reasoning.
The EC, formed in 1970, was an outgrowth of the Common Market nations. European nations allied economically in order to compete against larger nations, such as the US and Canada. Original members included France, Italy, England, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Finland, Ireland, and Sweden.
Nazi paramilitary groups (also called EGs) that operated in Eastern Europe. Their goal was the murder of Jews, Communists, and others who opposed Germany. Millions were murdered.
The process of producing a large number of items quickly using an assembly line. Numerous identical items could be quickly and cheaply produced. Modern factory systems of production developed in the mid-19th century as a result.
In 1898 England and France almost came to war over Fashoda, located in Sudan. The area was of no economic or political importance. This incident illustrated the dangers of imperialism, in that European nations were willing to fight over useless territory.
In 1917, German Foreign Secretary Zimmerman sent what was supposed to be a secret message to the government of Mexico. He asked Mexico to attack the US, and Germany would, in turn, support Mexican territory claims in the southwest US. The message was intercepted by the British, who gave it to the US, and it was one of the major reasons the US entered World War I.
Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of "openness" in the Soviet government. While it was meant to gain the support and trust of Russian citizens, it actually undermined the Soviet's reputation and stability.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
In 1790, the increasingly liberal National Assembly enacted policies that made the Catholic clergy employees of the French government. It deeply upset devout French Catholics.
The artistic and literary school emphasizing the dignity of common people, doing common things.
Girondins versus Jacobins
Both were political groups in the National Convention. Girondins were republicans from the Gironde department who feared Parisian domination of France. Jacobins favored Parisian control.
"The Irish Question"
The dispute initiated by Protestant Britain's takeover of Catholic Ireland in the 1700s and Britain's continued control of Northern Ireland has caused tension and violence between the two for centuries.
A new economic theory in the 1400s based on the idea that a country's wealth was measured by the amount of gold and silver possessed. This led to fierce competition for metallic riches through exploration and imperialism.
Leader of the Communist Party and in effect leader of the USSR from 1964 until his death in 1982. Insisted that the Soviet bloc nations defer to him. He also followed a policy of building up the Soviet military.
British idealist who believed that industrial workers and owners needed to work cooperatively in order to create an ideal working and living situation.
Era from 1300-1500, sometimes called the "age of transition," as it marked a period of innovation toward modern Europe from the Middle Ages. Literally meaning "rebirth", this epoch saw a return to classical Greek and Roman concepts and a flourishing of humanism.
First leader of the Russian republic. His pro-democracy reaction when Gorbachev's push for reform was held off by the Communist establishment was a rallying point for Russian democratic supporters.
Committee on Public Safety
1793 committee of the National Convention to direct the army in defeating foreign invasion and root out "enemies of the Revolution." Created a universal draft in the name of national security.
Index of Forbidden Books
Written by Pope Paul IV as part of the Counter-Reformation. The index forbade Catholics from reading books considered "harmful" to faith or morals. This indicates the significance of the printing press in disseminating Reformation ideas.
Beginning in the early 1900s, a school of art that focused on the emotional reaction to the subject. Paintings usually have strong lines and bold, vibrant colors. Masters of the style include Georges Rouault, Vincent van Gogh, and Paul Gaugin.
The Peterloo Massacre
In 1819 British troops sought to stop a peaceful meeting at St. Peter's fields in Manchester. Citizen favoring more liberal government policies organized the meeting. Soldiers killed several in the unarmed crowd and hundreds were injured.
Conservative Austrian leader, who, as representative of the royal family at the Congress of Vienna, led the reactionary forces in shaping the early 19th century. He worked to keep liberal ideas at bay in Austria until 1859.
England's successful efforts to force China to allow the sale of opium in China, beginning in 1839. China's imperial government opposed the sale, but England's forces were too strong. England's colony, India, was a major source of opium and needed markets for the supply it produced.
Congress of Vienna
The 1815 meeting of Europe's major powers (England, Russia, Austria, and France) to decide how to redraw the European map after Napoleon's fall from power. Reactionary policies restored royal families to the legitimate claims and ordered France to pay restitution for damages.
Became king of France in 1814; the conservative Congress of Vienna restored him to power. He was the brother of Louis XVI and ruled as a constitutional monarch until his death in 1824.
The Putting-Out System
The putting-out system had textile workers performing tasks at home, with their vendors leaving raw material and picking up finished products. This was replaced by the factory system.
The pervasive sense of paranoia mostly along peasants fearing that the nobles and royal forces were going to halt the revolution. Local manor houses and monasteries were pillaged and feudal dues were left blatantly unpaid.
Leader of USSR from 1953-64. While famous for his "we will bury you" comment to the US, he also opened communication with the West, particularly the US. He also ended Stalinist purges in the USSR.
Wealthy merchant families bankers who controlled the Italian city-state of Florence during the Renaissance era. Their subsidization of the arts, especially under Lorenzo, supported the flowering of the Renaissance.
Political party that began during the later part of the 20th century. Exists in a number of Western nations and represents many citizens wanting a political party that reflects environmental concerns.
One of the leaders of the Russian communist revolution (1917). A close supporter of Lenin, Trotsky was largely responsible for creating the Red Army. After Lenin's death in 1924, he and Stalin sought control of the party; Stalin won. He was deported in 1929 and murdered in 1940 by an agent of Stalin.
Sometimes called the Catholic Reformation. The Counter-Reformation started in the 1530s by the Church and was aimed at reforming internal Church practices to combat the success of the Protestant Reformation.
Reign of Terror
Directed by Jacobin Maximilien Robespierre to suppress all opposition to the revolution within France. Lasted from September 1793 -July 1794. Ended with Robespierre's execution by those fearing his fanatical policies.
The last czar of Russia, he abdicated 1917 and was murdered in 1918 along with his family. Though generally regarded as a decent man, he was an extremely weak and ineffective leader.
Italian diplomat who lived from 1478-1529. Published the most famous Renaissance book "The Book of the Courtier". This became the archetype for the "Renaissance man," who was versed in liberal arts and social graces, as contrasted to the more unrefined Middle Ages knight.
Members of the Old Regime (nobles and clergy) who fled from France to Germany, Britain, and Switzerland during the Revolution and conspired to end the Revolution.
Became the leader of the USSR in 1985. He proposed major reforms and adopted policies of greater openness (glasnost and perestroika) and allowed Soviet-bloc states greater independence. In 1991 there was an unsuccessful attempted overthrow of his government. The USSR dissolved in 1991 with Gorbachev's resignation.
Bourbon king of France. Charles X was restored to power by the Congress of Vienna. His conservative actions prompted his overthrow in 1830.
Portuguese navigator whose crew first circumnavigated the globe and thus proved that the world was round and that the New World was not a part of Asia. Furthermore, Magellan's exploration of the Pacific Ocean yielded its name because of its pacific, or calm, nature.
Star Chamber Courts
Special courts under England's James I designed to punish political dissenters and Puritans. A symbol of absolutism dating back to Henry VII.
Habsburg ruler of Spain from 1516-56. Elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519. He defended the Habsburg lands from the Ottomans and decided to split the Habsburg Spanish and Holy Roman lands between his son, Philip II and his brother, Ferdinand I.
Stalin became dictator of Russia after lenin's death in 1924. He led the USSR through WWII and into the Cold War. He died in 1953 and is remembered for his brutal purges in his nation.
Treaty of Nanjing
1842 agreement ending the Opium war between China and England and giving England control of Hong Kong and regional ports, as well as awarding British citizens extraterritoriality rights.
Period between the collapse of the Roman Empire and Renaissance, approximately 476-1450.
Swiss leader of Protestantism and advocate of predestination who created theocracies in Swiss cantons. His ideas led to a large following in France, known collectively as the Huguenots.
Extremely repressive laws adopted in 1819 in Prussia and the German Confederation. The decrees were meant to discourage liberal views and movements.
The political belief that the government needs to provide extensive social and economic benefits for its citizens. This theory began in the early 1800s largely in response to the suffering of the industrial poor. Socialists also believe that the government's primary concern is the protection and care of its citizens, even if private property needs to be taken.
British inventor of the water frame (1769), which helped revolutionize textile production.
The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy.
Scot who invented the steam engine in 1769.
Great Hunger/Great Famine
Beginning in 1845, a severe blight struck the European potato crop. In Ireland, the results were devastating and millions died, with even more immigrating to Canada and the US. Also called the Potato Famine.
The name of Germany's fledgling post-WWI democracy. Name for the seat of government, it was beset by social and economic problems and ended with the election of Hitler.
First Bourbon king of France, ruled 1589-1610, and converted to Catholicism from Calvinism to bring peace after the French Civil War. He passed the Edict of Nantes and was assassinated in 1610.
French clergyman and revolutionary, who authored "What is the Third Estate". It expressed the pains and complaints of the Third Estate, around which the revolutionaries rallied.
Leonardo da Vinci
A quintessential "Renaissance man" - he was a sculptor, scientist, engineer, architect, and painter. Famous works include "The Last Supper" and the "Mona Lisa". His artistic style embodied the Renaissance investigation and its focus on the realistic portrayal of human life. Lived from 1452-1519
Romanov ruler of Russia known as Ivan the Terrible. He was a fierce ruler who laid the groundwork for the westernization of Russia that was later continued by Peter the Great. Ivan IV's rule of intimidation lasted from 1547-84.
One of Britain's great liberal leaders, he favored expanding political rights for British men. He served several times during the mid-to-late 1800s.
An intense love of one's nation and desire to promote its interests. This idea was behind unification and statehood movements in Germany and Italy.
Before the 1789 Revolution, "Old Regime" France was divided into three estates: the first being the clergy (1% of the population); the second being the nobility (2% of the population); and the 3rd being everyone else - the bourgeoisie, the city workers, the artisans, and the rural peasants (97% of the population).
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille
Ferdinand and Isabella married in 1479, which united Aragon and Castile into one Spanish nation. During their reign, they captured Granada from the Moors in 1492, tooks powers away from the Church courts and Spanish nobility, and forcibly united Spain along a Catholic identity through the Inquisition.
Declaration issued in 1917 by the British Foreign Secretary, Sir A. Balfour, saying the British government would support a Jewish homeland.
Artistic style developed in France in the late 1800s that employed light, shadow, color, and varied brush strokes to leave the viewer with a more natural impression. Claude Monet, Mary Cassatt, and Auguste Renoir pioneered the style.
Philsophe who published the "Social Contract". He posited that people are born good but are corrupted by education, laws, and society. Rousseau advocated a government based on popular sovereignty and was distrustful of other philosophes' suffocating conformity to "reason."
19th century school of thought which began in France and held that the scientific method could solve social ills. Leading thinkers were Count Saint-Simon and Auguste Comte.
Lasting from 1795-99, this was the final stage of the French Revolution. Consisted of a five-man rule; they generally favored the wealthier class and were corrupt and unpopular. Napoleon ended their rule.
Five Year Plans
Stalin's attempt to rapidly modernize Russia's industrial capacity began in 1928, with the collectivization of farms as a part of the process. Russia's heavy industrial capacity did increase, but the collectivization caused massive unrest and violence. The second Five Year Plan began in 1933.
1689 law passed by Parliament granting some religious freedoms to dissenting Protestants who has broken away from the Anglican Church. However, this prohibited them from holding public office.
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples include Elizabeth I of England and Henry IV of France.
Oldest daughter of Henry VIII. Queen of England from 1553-8. Known for her ruthless, deadly suppression of the Anglicanism in attempting to re-Catholicize England. She married Spain's Philip II.
The opulent French palace built by Louis XVI just outside of Paris. Versailles represented the ostentation and absolute power of his monarchy. Louis required all his important nobles to live there so he could control them.
Body of Enlightenment thinkers. Most famous for writing "Encyclopedia", a handbook for Enlightenment ideas, edited by Denis Diderot. French term for "Philosophers".
Philsophe who wrote "Spirit of the Laws" in 1748. He described the British model of divided branches of government with checks and balances as the ideal system, later influencing the framing of the US Constitution.
Petition of Right
Petition presented to James I of England by MPs in response to his absolutist tendencies. This stated that the King could not tax without Parliamentary consent, quarter troops in private homes during peacetime, declare martial law, or imprison a person without a definite charge.
Parliament convened by Charles I in 1640. It officially lasted twenty years and was involved in the civil war against Charles I.
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Slogan of the revolutionaries in France seeking liberty from oppression, equality for all men, and fraternity, or unity of Frenchmen.
Women's March on Versailles
On October 5, 1789, an angry mob of Parisian women stormed through Versailles demanding Louis XVI end the nationwide food shortage and that the royal family return to Paris with them.
Scottish form of Protestantism that Charles I of England tried to force to conform to Anglican practices. Charles I thus inflamed conflict with Scotland because of this religious difference.
War of Spanish Succession
War fought by European powers after the death of the last Habsburg ruler of Spain in 1700, which left the throne to Louis XIV's grandson. Ended with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
Philosophe who wrote "Candide", satirizing prejudice, oppressive government, and bigotry. Championed freedom of religion and thought.
Tudor King of England from 1509-47. Established the Anglican Church as the official Church of England when the Catholic Church refused to nullify his marriage. His son, Edward VI, was sickly and died in 1553, leaving the throne to Mary I.
England's first permanent settlement (1607) in North America, located in present-day Virginia.
Age of Enlightenment
18th century period of scientific and philosophical innovation in which people investigated human nature and sought to explain reality through rationalism, the notion that truth comes only through rational, logical thinking. This period formed the basis of modern science.
War of Austrian Succession
Lasting from 1740-8 and initiated by Prussia's invasion of Silesia, this war involved Bavaria, Spain, Prussia, and France against Austria, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Russia.
Major reversal of diplomatic alliances. Great Britain reversed its alliance with Austria and forged a relationship with Prussia, causing France too join with Austria and Russia to check Prussian power.
Russian imperial dynasty that strengthened absolutism in Russia. Ruled from 1613-1917, when the Revolution forced Nicholas II's abdication.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy
Though retaining the role of head of state, the monarch in this type of governmental system must consult with Parliament (like Britain).
Puritan leader of the Roundhead army in the English Civil War who defeated Charles I and established a republic, or commonwealth, in England. He ruled as "Lord Protector" from 1653-8, part of the period known as the "Interregnum" in England (1649-60).
Part of the Nation Assembly's reforms, these were 83 districts wherein local official would be elected.
List of grievances sent by provinces to meeting of the Estates General called by Louis XVI in 1788, which he needed to obtain approval for taxes to combat France's ruinous economy.
Storming of the Bastille
Fearing that Louis XVI would forcibly shut down the National Assembly, a mob of Parisians stormed and burned the infamous political prison, Bastille, and raided its armory in July 1789. This event triggered the diffusion of revolutionary zeal.
Catherine the Great
Romanov ruler of Russia from 1763-96 who supported enlightened additions to Russian culture and expanded Russia's borders to include control of the northern shores of the Black Sea, the Crimea, Polish land, and Alaska.
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