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Terms in this set (97)
In the communication process, a sender will communicate in symbols to the receiver. A symbol is a representation of the object, experience, happening, concept, or idea that is being communicated.
A representation of the object, experience, happening, concept, or idea that is being communicated.
The creator of the message being communicated; can be a person, group of people, or even a machine.
Whatever information, concepts, or ideas the sender is attempting to relay.
A process that occurs after determining the message where the sender translates it into words, electrical impulses, pictures, or body language to be sent to the receiver
The means by which the message travels from a source to a receiver
The person the message is intended for
Extracting the meaning of the message through the translated symbols
Response the receiver sends to the sender after receiving a message
Anything that disrupts or distorts a message
Writings created by Aristotle, describing three basic components of a persuasive message that should be considered: the source, the message and the audience.
Expert knowledge and truthfulness that a communicator possesses
One of the three basic components of a persuasive message that should be considered.
Latitude of Acceptance
The degree to which another person's opinion is close enough to yours that you will give it serious consideration
Communication used to improve interpersonal relationships and/or reduce (or possibly eliminate) defensiveness in the subject; characterized by being problem-focused, descriptive, and flexible.
(Of an argument or reaction) directed against a person rather than the position they are maintaining
When listeners try to understand not only the content of the message, but also the speaker's implied thoughts and emotional impact as well
Expressed Level of Empathy
Understanding the facts of the message and restating a paraphrased form back to the original speaker to clarify meaning and establish that the listener is indeed listening.
Implied Level of Empathy
The listener picks up the emotional cues and tries to understand what the speaker may have insinuated or chosen not to say
The study of posture that includes not only body positioning, but also other body language such as gestures and facial expressions.
The study of distance between two communicators
Part of non-verbal communication. A facial expression can indicate the full spectrum of emotions, but people vary in there individual degrees of expressiveness.
The tone, pitch, pacing, volume, and tempo of speech are vocal cues that express a lot about the message to the listener.
The study of posture, or kinesics, includes not only body positioning, but also other body language such as gestures and facial expressions.
The physical appearance of the speaker, such as hygiene and clothing, has a large effect on the acceptance of the message put forth.
Non-official form of communication that is fostered by informal relationships and cuts across organizational lines.
People who usually disseminate and frame information for organization members; they influence the members of the organization by presenting outside information in a cartain way
A person whose primary job is to prevent information overload by receiving facts and figures, filtering out and summarizing the useful information, and finally passing it on to the appropriate individuals.
Individuals that represent an organization and interact with the outside environment
Someone with responsibility for connecting two or more different groups, teams or divisions.
A person engaging in selective listening only hears what they want to hear. If information being presented is either unsavory or conflicts with the listener's values, they may choose to ignore the information.
While jargon can help people within a certain group quickly grasp and understand what is being communicated, listeners unfamiliar with the jargon may feel left out and probably will not comprehend the whole message.
Humans have a finite ability to process information and too many messages prevent a person from absorbing the highest-priority and most relevant information
Putting the information on a priority list and delaying the viewing of the communications until there is time to evaluate them
Complex or hard-to-understand information is ignored, which can cause problems if the ignored information is essential to decision making
Taking a piece of the communication and treating it as a representative sample that approximates the whole message
Different individuals or department evaluate and process different types of information. (Ex: Customer service departments handle complaints, accounting analyze financial statements)
Attempting to filter information and decide what is relevant and irrelevant
When an evaluation consists of classifying the general performance of an employee into one of several categories such as "great," "good," "average," or "needs improvement."
When the individuals in a group of employees are ranked from highest (best) to lowest (worst) according to some aspect of their performance
An evaluation that requires the evaluator to write out a description of a worker's performance
Graphic Rating Scale
A type of evaluation in which an employer's various attributes are measured on a numbered scale, usually from 1 to 10
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale
A scale that has a specific description that goes with each number
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Employees work with their managers to establish quantifiable, attainable objectives; these recorded objectives are used later on to judge employee performance
Goal setting that lets employees affected by the goals participate in setting the goals.
The employees have no influence whatsoever on the content of the goals or level of performance expected.
Lets employees create and manage their own goals without any input from management
The degree of detail that the goal describes the desired outcome.
The level of effort necessary to attain a goal.
The level of acceptance that an individual has toward a performance target
The amount of devotion that a person has to reaching a specific goal
A performance review that includes evaluations from superiors, subordinates, and peers.
Performance evaluation from subordinates; may offer information not readily observable from higher management levels.
Personal Development Appraisal
An appraisal primarily concerned with increasing the employee's skills and competency
An appraisal that measures the value the employee has added to an organization, and is usually used for promotions and pay increases.
An interview that starts and end the interview with compliments to keep the employee in high spirits
The two main components of wage (in order of importance) are 1. What is fair for the type off job and level of performance and 2. The supply and demand of the labor market and the company's ability to furnish that level of compensation
Merit Pay Plan
An incentive system that bases an employee's salary or wage level increases on the quality of his or her work
When an employee's pay is tied directly to each unit of work that they produce
When a firm increases an employee's wage rate for acquiring new education, training, or job-related skills
Pay for Knowledge
An organization will provide increases to base pay if an employee can learn new information and pass a test that demonstrates mastery of the material.
A percentage of a company's pretax profits is given back to employees
A profit-sharing plan that distributes the gains from profit-sharing into each employee's tax-deferred account, where it grows until it is received by its owner (usually at retirement)
Profit-sharing plan where an employee immediately reaps the benefits of the company's performance at the end of the year.
A company-wide incentive program that is similar to profit-sharing; financial incentive that corresponds with levels of productivity or other measures that drive up profits in the long term.
Type of strategy that allocates a fixed percentage of revenues toward employment costs
The framework within which an organization arranges its lines of authority and communications
The process of building the organizational structure
Making changes to an organizational structure
The idea that job specialization allows employees to work together and achieve results that are greater than if each member tried to accomplish the tasks alone
The process of combining jobs into groups or departments
Grouping jobs that are relatively homogeneous into silos
When departments try to achieve success at the expense of others
When jobs are grouped by the product (or product line) being produced
When an organizational structure is divided into groups based on location
An organizational structure used when certain market segments of customers have specialized needs
Span of Control
The number of people that one manager supervises
High Amount of Contact
If a position requires a high amount of contact between the supervisor and subordinates, there should be a narrower span of control (fewer employees under one supervisor)
The Education and Experience Level of Employees
Span of control depends: The more education and training/experience the employees have, the less supervision they need, since they are familiar with their position and are usually able to self-monitor
If instructions are relatively straightforward and can be written down and given out via letter, memo, or email a larger span of control is possible. However, if the job instructions and work-related conversations are complicated, managers would generally be better off with fewer employees working under them.
Type of Task
Complicated and constantly changing jobs usually require a narrow span of control. Repetitive and uncomplicated jobs that require less supervision can have a wide span of control.
Employees are continually monitored by supervisors to ensure that they are continuously following the firm's rules and policies.
Standardized of Work Processes
Standard operating procedures, stringent rules, and technology can help ensure that employees are performing a task a certain way
Standardization of Outputs
The end product has specific standards that must be met. As long as these standards are satisfied, the employees are given leeway with how they complete the deliverable.
Standardization of Skills
The tasks that the employees do and the way that they do them are determined by the type and amount of their training.
In constantly changing situations, sometimes employees must disregard formal lines of communication so that they can immediately talk to the person they need in that situation. There is a steady stream of informal communication in this coordinating mechanism.
A measure of the effects of formal rules and procedures on employee behavior
Matrix of Structure
A dual structure created when an organization combines functional and product departmentalization
Mechanistic Organizational Structure
Structure characterized by formal rules and procedures designed to facilitate the operations of a large-scale complex organization where coordination of activities is critical to success
Organic Organizational Structure
Structure characterized by lack of rules and formal reporting relationships
Structures that allow members of the organization to work from remote locations and utilize various types of communication technologies for collaboration on projects
A rational organizational structure that clearly organized a collection of activities; combines and manages the work of many people within an organization using a set of rules and policies
System Four Organizational Structure
(Participative-group oriented) This system is characterized by a decentralized structure, open communication, and a wide base of participation in decision making and goal setting. This style usually requires a high degree of trust between managers and their subordinates.
Principle of Supportive Relationships
Every organization has a duty to engage its employees in ways that build and maintain their sense of value and importance. At the heart of this philosophy is the dignity of the individual employee. Every employee should be valued as an individual
Key individuals who form conduits between two or more groups
The way(s) that a firm turns inputs into outputs, including the production process, actions, information, and tools that are used
Increased division and specialization of the workforce into specific jobs
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