198 terms

baking terms

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Balance or baker's scale
These scales use a two-tray and free-weights counterbalance system.
Bench brush
This brush helps remove flour from the bakeshop worktable.
Bread knife
A knife with a long, serrated blade that cuts easily through bread crust or pastry items.
Cake comb
Flat metal or stiff plastic tool with teeth cut along each edge. When dragged across the surface of a frosted cake, it leaves decorative, parallel lines in the icing.
Cake-decorating turntable
A round metal or plastic platform seated on a heavy stand to facilitate cake decorating.
Calibrate
Measurement in grams, ounces or pounds and also refers to the process of ensuring a stem thermometer reads accurately.
Chinois
A type of strainer that is nonmechanical with a stainless steel mesh or screen through which food passes.
Convection oven
An oven that uses internal fans to circulate hot air over and around foods placed on adjustable wire racks inside the oven's cavity.
Cookie press
Also known as a cookie gun, a hollow tube fitted with a plunger and an interchangeable decorative tip or plate; soft cookie dough is pressed through the tip to create shapes or patterns
Cutters
Cutting tools to help the pastry chef and baker save time and produce uniform products. Most kitchens will have a set of round biscuit cutters and a rolling cutter.
Deck or stack oven
Large commercial ovens with numerous "decks" stacked one on top of another where pans are placed directly on the deck or floor and not on wire racks.
Dispensing tip
Stainless steel, plastic or chrome-plated metal cones. Slipped inside the pastry bag, the tips produce unique shapes when paste or icing is squeezed through them.
Dough cutter A standard pastry chef tool used for cutting dough.
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Dough hook
Another common attachment on the vertical mixer, it is used to knead dough.
Flat top
A steel plate on an oven range, a flat top supplies even but less intense heat. Although it takes longer to heat than a burner, the flat top supports heavier weights and makes a larger area available for cooking.
Graters
Used to shred ingredients into small uniform pieces so that they will blend or melt easily when cooked.
Hand tools
Designed to aid in cutting, shaping, moving or combining foods.
Hearth oven
An oven whose floor is made from stone or masonry; bread, pizzas or other items are baked directly on its heated stone surface; also known as a deck oven.
Hotel pan
Rectangular stainless steel pans designed to hold food for service in steam tables.
Immersion blender
Used to purée a soft food or sauce or blend directly in the container in which it was prepared.
Induction
Uses special conductive coils called inductors placed below the stovetop's surface in combination with flat-bottomed cookware made of cast iron or magnetic stainless steel.
Knife
A single piece of metal, stamped, cut or forged and tempered into a blade of the desired shape.
Lame
The bread baker uses this type of knife to score the surface of bread dough before baking.
Mandoline
A manually operated slicer made of stainless steel with adjustable slicing blades.
Measuring cup
Used to measure ingredients by volume; measuring cups have a lip or pour spout above the top line to prevent spills.
Orbital mixer or spiral mixer
Mounted to the floor on casters, and the bowl rotates along with the dough attachment when in operation.
Oven brush
Used by a baker to sweep the floor of a pizza or deck oven to prevent bits of flour or cornmeal from burning.
Oven
An enclosed space where food is cooked by being surrounded by hot air.
Pan
A round vessel with one long handle and straight or sloped sides.
Pastry bag
Used to decorate, pastry bags help the chef dispense fillings, frosting and batters into uniform and decorative patterns.
Pastry brushes
Brushes that are used in the bakeshop to apply coatings onto bakeware or to glaze foods before or after cooking.
Portion scale
These scales use a spring mechanism, round dial and single flat tray.
Portion
A range of standardized sizes. Portion scoops have a lever-operated blade for releasing their contents. Scoops are useful for portioning muffin batters and cookie dough or other soft foods.
Pot
A large round vessel with straight sides and two loop handles.
Propane torch
A hand-held blow torch, such as that used in the plumbing trade, can be used to top-brown or finish foods.
Recovery time
Recovery time is the length of time it takes fat to return to the desired cooking temperature after food is submerged in it.
Refrigerator
Store foods at low temperatures to maintain quality and safety. Among commercial refrigeration are two types: walk-in units and reach-in or upright units.
Rolling pin
These pins help flatten or spread dough to a uniform thickness before cutting and baking.
Salamander
A small overhead broiler primarily used to finish or top-brown foods.
Scales
A tool necessary to determine the weight of an ingredient or a portion of food.
Sheet pan
Rectangular trays with one-inch lip on all four sides.
Sheeter
An electric appliance that mechanically rolls dough and pastry to a uniform thickness.
Sieve
Used to aerate and remove impurities from dry ingredients and drain or purée cooked foods.
Slicer
An electric slicer is used to cut bread, cheese or raw fruits not to mention meat and vegetables into uniform slices.
Spatula
Long-handled flat tools used for spreading icing, leveling off dry measured goods and other everyday kitchen tasks.
Strainer
Used primarily to aerate and remove impurities from dry ingredients and drain or purée cooked foods.
Thermometer
Various types of thermometers and gauges are used in the bakeshop to determine when foods are cooked and when working with yeast dough, chocolate, sugar and other ingredients.
Vertical cutter/mixer (VCM)
Operates like a very large, powerful blender or food processor. A VCM is usually floor-mounted and has a capacity of 15 to 80 quarters.
Whip
A common attachment on the vertical mixer; it is used to whip eggs or cream.
Workstations
A designated area where similar tasks are performed.
Apprentice
A novice assigned, where needed, to assist and learn in specific areas.
Area chef
This chef reports to the executive chef.
Artisan
A person who works in a skilled craft or trade; one who works with his hands. Applied to bread bakers and confectioners who prepare foods using traditional methods.
Classic Cuisine
A late 19th and early 20th-century refinement and simplification of French grande cuisine.
Confectioner
Makes candies and petits fours.
Confectionery
Transforming sugar into sweets; it also refers to the trade of candy making.
Craft
A skilled trade.
Cross-contamination
The transfer of bacteria or other contaminants from one food, work surface or piece of equipment to another.
Decorator
Makes showpieces and special cakes.
Executive Chef
He or she plans menus and creates recipes. The role of an executive chef is to coordinate kitchen activities and direct the kitchen staff's training and work ethic.
Executive Pastry Chef
Oversees a staff of pastry specialists.
Farm-to-table movement
An awareness of the source of ingredients with an emphasis on serving locally grown and minimally-processed fresh food in season.
Fusion Cuisine
The blending or use of ingredients and/or preparation methods from various ethnic, regional or national cuisines in the same dish; also known as transnational cuisine.
Grande Cuisine
Also known as haute cuisine, it is the rich, intricate and elaborate cuisine of the 18th and 19th-century French aristocracy and upper classes.
Guild System
A method of organizing the production and sale of goods produced outside the home. The culinary crafts of the baker, butcher distiller and pastry cook evolved during the Middle Ages under the European guild system.
Kitchen Brigade
A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks.
Master Baker
This title recognizes the highest level of achievement; only highly skilled and experienced bakers who have demonstrated their professional knowledge in written and practical exams are entitled to use it.
Microorganisms
Single-celled organisms including bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses or fungi that thrive on certain foods.
National Cuisine
The characteristic cuisine of a nation.
New American Cuisine
A style of cuisine that uses fresh, seasonal and locally grown produce in a simple preparation that preserves and emphasizes foods' natural flavors.
Nouvelle Cuisine
French for "new cooking," a mid-20th century movement away from many classic principles and toward a lighter cuisine based on natural flavors, shortened cooking times and innovative combinations.
Pathogens
Any organism that causes disease; usually refers to bacteria.
Pâtissier
French for pastry chef.
Potentially hazardous food (PHF)
These foods should be heated or cooled quickly so that they are within the temperature danger zone as briefly as possibly. Also known as the time-and-temperature principle.
Refined Sugar
Sugar cane produces a liquid syrup that when boiled down hardens and crystallizes.
Restaurant
The word restaurant is derived from the French word restaurer ("to restore"). Since the 16th century, the word restorative had been used to describe rich and highly flavored soups or stews capable of restoring lost strength.
Sous-chef
A cook who supervises food production and who reports to the executive chef; he or she is second in command of a kitchen.
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris)
A plant with a high concentration of sucrose in its root; a major source of refined sugar.
Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum)
A tropical grass native to Southeast Asia; the primary source of sugar.
Temperature Danger Zone
The broad range of temperatures at which most of the bacteria that cause food-borne illnesses multiply rapidly.
Temperature
The most important factor in the pathogenic bacteria's environment because it is most easily controlled by food service workers.
Toque
The tall white hat worn by chefs.
Aerate
To incorporate air into a mixture through sifting and mixing.
Aroma
The sensations, as interpreted by the brain, of what we detect when a substance comes in contact with sense receptors in the nose.
Batter
Prepared by blending, creaming, whipping; a batter contains more liquids, fat and sugars than dough. A batter bakes into a softer, moister product than dough.
Beating
Vigorously agitating foods to incorporate air or develop gluten.
Blending
A mixing method that consists of taking two or more ingredients and blending until evenly distributed.
Caramelization
The process of cooking sugars.
Carryover baking
The cooking that occurs after a food is removed from the heat source.
Coagulation
The irreversible transformation of proteins from a liquid or semi liquid state to a drier, solid state; usually accomplished through the application of heat.
Conduction
The transfer of heat from one item to another through direct contact.
Convection
The transfer of heat caused by the natural movement of molecules in a fluid (whether air, water or fat) from a warmer area to a cooler one; mechanical convection is the movement of molecules caused by stirring.
Creaming
Vigorously combining softened fat and sugar while incorporating air.
Cutting
Incorporating solid fat into dry ingredients only until lumps of the desired size remain.
Dough
A mixture of flour and other ingredients used in baking.
Dry-heat
A method that uses air or fat as the principal method to cook batter or dough.
Emulsify
To combine a fat and a liquid into a homogeneous mixture by properly blending ingredients.
Folding
A mixing method in which light, airy ingredients are incorporated into heavier ingredients by gently moving them from the bottom of the bowl up over the top in a circular motion.
Formula Standard term used throughout the bakeshop for a recipe.
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Gelatinization
The process by which starch granules are cooked; they absorb moisture when placed in a liquid and heated; as the moisture is absorbed, the product swells, softens and clarifies slightly.
Gluten
An elastic network of proteins created when wheat flour is moistened and manipulated.
Kneading
Working dough to develop gluten.
Maillard reaction
The process whereby sugar breaks down in the presence of protein; non enzymatic browning.
Mixing
Methods for combining two or more ingredients, including: beating, blending or folding.
Moist heat
A cooking method that uses water or steam such as poaching, steaming or simmering; used to heat liquids, this method encourages evaporation, resulting in intensifying liquid or reduction.
Mouthfeel
The sensation created in the mouth by a combination of a food's taste, smell, texture and temperature.
Palate
(1) the complex of smell, taste and touch receptors that contribute to a person's ability to recognize and appreciate flavors; (2) the range of an individual's recognition and appreciation of flavors.
Reduction
A liquid cooked until a portion of it evaporates, reducing the volume of the liquid; used to concentrate flours and thicken liquids.
Sifting
Passing one or more dry ingredients through a metal mesh to remove lumps.
Staling
When gases form and are trapped within a dough or batter, moisture evaporates and staling begins.
Starch retrogradation
The process whereby starch molecules in a batter or dough lose moisture after baking. The result is baking goods that are stale or dry.
Stirring
Gently mixing ingredients until evenly blended.
Taste
The sensations, as interpreted by the brain, of what we detect when food, drink or other substances come in contact with our taste buds.
Umami
Often called the "fifth taste," refers to the rich, full taste perceived in the presence of the natural amino acid glutamate and its commercially produced counterpart known as monosodium glutamate (MSG); cheese, meats, rich stocks, soy sauce, shellfish, fatty fish, mushrooms, tomatoes and wine are all high in glutamate.
Whipping
Beating vigorously to incorporate air.
Acidulation
The browning of cut fruit caused by the reaction of an enzyme (polyphenoloxidase) with the phenolic compounds present in these fruits; this browning is often mistakenly attributed to exposure to oxygen.
Aging
The period during which freshly milled flour is allowed to rest so that it will whiten and produce less sticky doughs; the aging of flour can be chemically accelerated.
Albumen
The principal protein found in egg whites.
Bloom
(1) a white, powdery layer that sometimes appears on chocolate; (2) to soften granulated gelatin in a liquid before melting and using
Cider
Mildly fermented apple juice; nonalcoholic apple juice may also be labeled cider.
Composite flour
A nonwheat flour, referred to as composite flour that is made from grains, seeds or beans. A composite flour is generally blended with a high protein wheat flour for baking.
Concentrated milk
Concentrated or condensed milk products are produced in a vacuum to remove all or part of the water from whole milk. The resulting product has a high concentration of milk fat and milk solids and a longer shelf life.
Emulsified shortening
Also called high ratio shortenings, are used in the production of commercial cakes or frostings, where the formula contains a large amount of sugar.
Emulsify
To combine a fat and a mixture in a homogenous mixture by properly blending ingredients.
Emulsions
Flavoring oils mixed into water with the aid of emulsifiers. Lemon and orange are the most common emulsions.
Essential oils
Pure oils extracted from the skins, peels and other parts of plants used to give their aroma and taste to flavoring agents in foods, cosmetics and other products.
Extracts
A mixture of flavoring oils and ethyl alcohol. Vanilla, lemon and almond. The contents of these extracts are regulated by the FDA and noted when containing artificial ingredients.
Friable
Easily crumbled; said of a baked good with low moisture or high fat content. Example: butter cookie.
Fructose
Refined sugar from large tropical grass such as sugar cane and the root of the sugar beet. Available in many forms, such as white granulated and light or dark granulated sugars.
Gelatin
A thickener used in baking, gelatin is derived from collagen, an animal protein.
Germ
The smallest portion of a cereal grain and the only part that contains fat.
Grading
Labeling of butters by the USDA, in grades AA through B, assuring buyers that the butter meets federal standards.
Hard flour
Hard wheat yields a hard flour with a high protein content. Hard or strong flour is used for yeast breads.
Hybrid
The result of crossbreeding genetically different species; often a unique product.
Hydrogenation
The process used to harden oils; hydrogen atoms are added to unsaturated fat molecules, making them partially or completely saturated and thus solid at room temperature.
Hydrometer
A device used to measure specific gravity; it shows degrees of concentration on the Baumé scale; also known as a saccharometer.
Hygroscopic
Describes a food that readily absorbs moisture from the air.
Interferent
A substance that helps stop sugar from recrystallizing when dissolved in a solution.
Irradiated
Fruits subject to ionizing radiation to destroy parasites, insects and bacteria.
Jam
Fruit gel made from fruit pulp and sugar.
Jellies
Fruit gel made from fruit juice and sugar.
Lactose
A disaccharide that occurs naturally in mammalian milk.
Marmalade
Citrus jelly that contains unpeeled slices of citrus fruits.
Molasses
A liquid product of sugar refining. This product is intentionally produced from cane sugar syrup and preferred because of its lighter color and milder flavor.
Oil
Extracted from a variety of plants including corn, cotton and peanuts, oil is a fat. Unlike other fats, oil can be thoroughly blended in a mixture.
Papain
Enzyme found in papayas that breaks down proteins.
Pasteurized eggs
Recommended in the preparation of a recipe when the eggs will not be cooked, such as topping in a lemon meringue pie. This egg product can be frozen, dried or refrigerated.
Pectin
A substance in all fruits that causes cooked fruits to become a semi solid mass called a gel.
Preserve
A fruit gel that contains large pieces of whole fruits.
Purchasing
Fresh fruit is sold by weight or count and packed in containers known as crates, bushels, cartons, cases, lugs or flats.
Respiration rate
The speed at which fruit uses up oxygen and creates carbon dioxide during ripening.
Ripening
Ripened fruit is full-sized, soft, tender, sweet, flavorful and aromatic. Ongoing ripening can deteriorate the fruit's flavor and tenderness and eventually cause spoilage.
Shell
The outermost covering of an egg, composed of calcium carbonate.
Simple syrups
Solutions of sugar and water, used to moisten cake, make sorbet, sauces and beverages.
Soft flour
Also known as weak flour. Soft wheat yields soft flour with a low protein content. Soft or weak flour is best for tender products such as cake.
Starches
One of the five nutrients in flour, starches constitute 63 to 77 percent of the flour and are necessary for the absorption of moisture during baking.
Strong flour
Hard wheat yields a hard or strong flour with a high protein content. Hard or strong flour is used for yeast breads.
Sucrose
Refined sugar from large tropical grass such as sugar cane.
Ultra high temperature (UHT)
A processing form of ultra pasteurization in which milk is held at a temperature of 280°F to 300°F for 2 to 6 seconds. The milk is then held in sterile containers to avoid contamination.
Varieties
Crossbreeding fruits from the same species with different qualities or characteristics.
Vital wheat gluten
Added to flours to increase protein content of weaker flours such as whole grain or rye flours.
Weak flour
Also known as soft flour. Soft wheat yields a soft flour with a low protein content. Soft or weak flour is best for tender products such as cake.
Yolk
The yellow portion of an egg. It comprises over 1/3 of the egg and provides 3/4 of the calories, most of the minerals and vitamins and all of the fat.
Zest
The thin, colored outer portion of the rind of citrus fruit; contains the oil that provides flavor and aroma
Baker's percentage
A system for measuring ingredients where the quantity of each ingredient is expressed as a percentage of the total amount of flour used in the formula.
Blanching
Very briefly and partially cooking a food in boiling water or hot fat; used to assist preparation (for example, to loosen peels from fruits or vegetables), as part of a combination cooking method, to remove undesirable flavors or to prepare a food for freezing.
Clarify
When water and milk solids are removed from butter; process is known as clarifying, or heating butter so it doesn't burn as easily.
Conversion factor
(C.F.) The number used to increase or decrease ingredient quantities and recipe yields when a formula or recipe needs to be increased or decreased.
Count
Refers to the number of individual items; count is used in formulas and in portion control.
Infuse
To flavor a liquid by steeping it with ingredients such as tea, coffee, herbs or spices.
Macerate
To soak foods in a flavorful liquid, usually alcohol to soften them.
Metric system
System of measure in which the gram, liter or meter are the basic units of measure in weight, volume and length.
Parboiling
Partially cooking a food in boiling or simmering liquid; similar to blanching but the cooking time is longer.
Scale up (down)
To increase (decrease) a recipe or formula mathematically.
Scaling
Measuring ingredients by weight.
Shocking
Also called refreshing; the technique of quickly chilling blanched or parcooked foods in ice water; prevents further cooking and sets colors.
Steel
Used when honing and straightens the blades between sharpenings.
True percentage
Many commercial formulas, especially for cakes, cookies and breads, list ingredients as a percentage in addition to, or in place of, a specific weight or volume of measurement.
Volume
Refers to space occupied by a substance. Volume is most commonly used to measure liquids. It can also be used to measure dry ingredients when the weight is too small to be measured accurately.
Weight
Refers to the mass of heaviness of a substance. It can be expressed in grams, ounces, kilograms or tons.
Whetstone
A stone that is used to sharpen a dull blade.
Yield
The total amount of a product produced by a formula expressed in total weight, volume or number of units of the product.
Baking powder
A a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and one or more acids, generally cream of tartar and/or sodium aluminum sulfate, used to leaven baked goods; it releases carbon dioxide gas if moisture is present in a formula.
Baking soda
Sodium bicarbonate.
Biscuit method
A quick-bread mixing technique using cold, chilled fat. The result is flaky dough.
Chemical leavening agents
Primarily baking soda and baking powder.
Creaming method
Quick breads are generally mixed by using the muffin method or creaming method. The mixing method employed is directly related to type and consistency used in the formula. Fats that are soft, but not liquid, are used in the high fat creaming method.
Crumb
The interior of bread or cake; may be elastic, aerated, fine or coarse-grained.
Double action baking powder
A type of chemical leavening that releases some carbon dioxide gas upon contact with moisture, and more gas when heat is applied; the more popular of the baking powders.
Griddlecakes
Pancakes and waffles are types of griddlecakes. Leavened with baking soda or baking powder, they are quickly cooked on a hot griddle using very little fat.
Make-up
Cutting, shaping and forming of dough products before baking.
Muffin method
A quick-bread mixing technique using liquid fat (softened butter or oil). The result is a soft, cake-like structure.
Pancakes
A type of griddlecake leavened with baking soda or powder, quickly cooked on a very hot griddle or waffle iron using very little fat.
Scones
The British version of a biscuit; a type of quick bread. The early scone recipes omitted butter and eggs, and used lard.
Single action baking powder
Only requires the presence of moisture to start releasing gas.
Streusel
A crumbly mixture of fat, flour, sugar and sometimes nuts and spices used to top baked goods.
Trimoline
Invert sugar syrup used commercially to prevent crystallization in candies and fondant fillings.
Tunneling
A large tubular hole in a muffins or cakes; a defect caused by over mixing