Terms in this set (52)
the passing on of characteristics from one generation to the next
the study of heredity
an inherited feature that varies among individuals within a population
each variant for a characteristics
a piece of DNA that codes for a certain protein
a monk in the father of genetics
plant's male reproductive organ
plant's female reproductive organ
what are the three advantages of choosing garden peas?
Reproduce quickly, produce large numbers of offspring from each mating, many readily distinguishable
what are the key features of Mendel's experimental approach?
used purebred plants, had control over breeding, observed seven characteristics with "either-or" traits
the eggs of one plant are fertilized by the sperm of the same plant
a genetically uniform line (all offspring inherit all of the parents' specific traits)
the mating of two organisms in the context of geneticss
specific location on a chromosome where a gene is found
any alternative version of a gene occurring at a specific locus on a chromosome
describes when two alleles for a specific gene are the same
what were Mendel's conclusions?
traits are inherited as discrete units (genes),organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent, organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes
describes when two alleles for a specific gene are different
all of an organism's genetic material
- determines all of your traits
-some traits are visible, other traits are not
the genetic makeup of a specific set of genes
the physical expression of a trait
how many alleles does a diploid cell have?
2 alleles for each gene
how many alleles does each parent donate?
-one allele may be dominant over another allele
-expressed as a phenotypes when at least one copy is present in the genotype
is expressed as a phenotype only when two copies are present
what are dominant alleles represented as?
what are recessive alleles represented as?
Grid system for predicting all possible genotypes of offspring resulting from a cross
a cross that examines the inheritance of only one specific trait
what percent chance does each box have?
homozygous dominant: heterozygous: homozygous recessive
cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an orangnism with the recessive phenotype
a cross that examines the inheritance of two specific traits
genes located on autosomes
autosomal genetic disoders
human genetic disorders are also caused by dominant and recessive alleles located on autosomes
disorders caused by recessive alleles
albinism, cystic fibrosis, galactosemia, phenylketonuria, Tay- Sachs disease
how many copies of alleles have to be present to have a recessive allele disorder?
2 copies of the recessive allele
an individual that has heterozygous alleles for a recessive disorder
disorders caused by dominant alleles
Achondroplasia, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease
how many copies do you need for disorder caused by a dominant allele
1 copy of the dominant allele
characteristics of a disorder caused by a dominant allele
less common than recessive disorders
appears during early adulthood (30-50)
an individual many reproduce before knowing he or she has the disease
what is a pedigree chart used for?
graphic representation of genetic inheritance
what do pedigrees show?
shows phenotypes and relationships of family members
a family history is taken & a pedigree is constructed
demonstrated inheritance patter
square in a pedigree
circle in a pedigree
horizontal line between a male & female that represents a mating
another word for offspring/child
when a circle of a square is open what does that mean?
doesn't exhibit trait of interest (unaffected)
when a circle of a square is filled what does that mean?
exhibits traits of interest (affected)