Intro to Telecom Exam 3

relationship between broadcast network and its affiliates?
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even though it offers more networks, why doesnt cable have a huge audience share advantage over broadcast networks (within prime time)?Because broadcast networks program their best programs during the prime timeGross rating points, cost per thousandGRP: Total number of rating points gained as a result of scheduling commercials. CPM: one measure of efficiency in the media. defined as cost to reach 1000 peopleMost important day part in terms of radio ad sales? TV ad sales?morning and drivetime, primetimeLeast important day part in terms of radio ad sales? TV ad sales?Overnight, 12:30-7amLocal Spot saleslocal commercials purchased to run on local stationsNetwork salessale of commercial advertising by regular networksnational spot salessale of commercial radio time to major national and regional advertisers. made on behalf of local stations by station representation firms, or reps.Up front marketnetwork television time that is sold in the summer before the actual television season begins. frequently for dayparts as opposed to actual programsscatter marketpurchasing broadcast time over several different time periods of the broadcast day.what tools and strategies do websites use to sell advertising?Banner ads- displayed at tops or sides of a webpage, contextual ads- search for something an ad for something similar will come up. behavioral ads- placing web ads tailored to viewers previous web surfing behavior or interests.Formattype of music or talk that a radio station chooses to program. usually targetted at specific segment of the populationtarget audienceprimary group sought by radio or tv program that they want to attracthot clock? clutter?hot clock is a vidualization of the format of a radios sound hour. clutter- commercials and other nonprogram material broadcast during program breaksdemographics and psychographicsdemo: categorizing people into easily observed traits. psycho: uses personality traits to target an audience1950shollywood tv programming1960sstabilization of network programming1970sdiversification of tv programming1980srise of independent producers1990semmergence of new networks2000sniche programming/ change in cultural role of programmingwhat is tv news command structure?News director (oversees everything) news producer (gives out jobs, retains editing, assignments) assignment editor (dispatch reporters and photographers to cover news stories) field producers (editors, writers, reporters, graphics)Process of pitching a program?concept w premise, treatment, step deal to get contract, when accepted under contract, first episode or pilot is aired.public broadcasting v commercial broadcasting?commercial is advertisement and profit driven. public is not bound by need to make a profit, more historical, artistictreatmentshort narrative used to sell an idea for a TV show or series to a production companypilotsample episode of a proposed tv seriesmain goal concerning programming strategiesmaximize audience flow. (get people to watch programs before and after it)3 types of syndicated programming?first run: shows expressly produced for syndication. mostly talk and game shows. off net: series that have appeared first on the networks and are being rerun by local stations or cable systems. movie packages: films that have completed their theatrical runsyndicationTV programming sold by distribution companies to local TV stations and cable serviceshow may a station pay for syndicated programming?cash, barter(syndicator withholds one or more minutes of time in the program and sells to national advertisers), cash and barteradvantages of barter syndication? disadv?lowers cost of programs to stations,station loses control of advertisementsreality shows like AI extremely proftable for broadcast networks why?dont cost as much, more loyal viewers and ratingswhy might reality shows not perform as well in syndication compared to a typical drama or comedy?reality shows become irrelevant and not as fascinatingwhy might a program be cancelled?low ratings, wrong demographics, declining ratingsstripsame type of show presented everytime at each day of weekblocksimilar programs go one after anotherhammocka weak show in between 2 strong onestent polinga strong show in between 2 weak onesstrong lead inmajor program at start of day partbridgingextend program 3 or 4 minutes past block, foiling other networks because they miss the beginning of their showscross overcharacter from one show appears on a different onespin offtaking popular characters and giving them their own showcounter programming v challenge programmingcounter is going for a different audience than the competition is trying to attract. challenge is going head to head with another programmer for same audiencestuntingmoving programs around the schedule.scarcity theoryelectromagnetic spectrum is limited so government gets to choose from a number of broadcasterspervasive presence theoryentitled to some protection, basic intrusiveness of broadcasting allows govt to regulate itcommerce clause and first amendment regarding regulationfed gov can regulate commerce/ business that crosses states3 limits on first ammendment rightsincitement, national security, obsenitykey provisions of radio act of 1927spectrum publically owned, radio stations have to operate in public interest, prohibition against censorship of broadcast programs by the government, federal radio commission would grant licenses.key provisions of communications act of 1934made the FRC the federal communications commission, include all wireless and wire forms of communicationkey provisions of childrens tv act of 19903 hrs per week of educational programmingkey provisions of telecom act of 1996foster comp between cable companies and phone companies by allowing phone companies to provide cable TV services and allow cable companies to offer local phone serviceWhat is the FCCfederal communications commission, regulates broadcasting and cable, and satellites. major force in the development and application of electronic media many commissioners in FCC and how are they appointed?5 commissioners appointed by president and confirmed by senate.functions of the 7 bureaus of the FCC?1. consumer and govt affairs bureau informs consumers about telecommunications goods and services and coordinates policy efforts with other governmental agencies. 2. enforcement bureau is responsible for upholding FCC rules and regulations 3. International Bureau represents FCC in satellite and other matters that involve the US and other countries 4. Wireless telecommunications bureau regulates cell phones, pagers, 2 way radios, and similar devices 5. wireline competition bureau regulates telephone companies 6. Public safety and homeland security bureau is responsible for the agencys policies pertaining to public safety communication issues 7. media bureau oversees AM and FM radio, broadcast TV, cable, and satellite services.What is FCC license and why is it required? How long does a station have before renewing its license?allows for radio to be part of public spectrum. renewals every 8 yearswhat must you do to qualify to obtain a license to operate a tv station?be a US citizen, good character, no crime, good future intentions,why might your FCC license be revoked or denied?knowingly giving false info or unauthorized transfer of controlhow frequently does the FCC revoke a license? what is renewal expectancy?very rarely. past station has precedence of renwing a license over new station if holding station does a good jobwhat influence do congress, the courts, and the president have over the fcc?congress creates fcc and controls, presidnet appoints, courts have judicial power and often rival what congress sayslobbysits public and local governments over the fcc?lobbyists express their views to the fcc, public generates favorable public opinion to move congress and influences policy in a general manner through its election of the president and congress, local governments have laws that the federal governments dont have even tho fed law supercedes state.criticisms of fcclack of precedent, revolving door, regulatory capture, underfunding, undo influence of lobbysits, lack of long range planningadv and disadv of relying on market to regulate media?adv: promote efficiency, encourage the creation of new services, and encourage diversity. disadv: only responsive to economic forces and is not sensitive to social needscable regulation different from broadcasting?fcc does not license cable tv systems.what rights does copyright provide to the copyright holder?authorize works derived from the original, distribute the work, dispaly or perform work publicly.fair useeven though the work has been copyrighted, others can borrow limited amounts from the materialprofanitybad wordsindecencysexual stuff but with merit like historical or artistic valueobscenityoffensive sexual atssafe harbortime that indecent material is allowed between 10 pm and 6 amgeorge carlin casegeorge carlin used 7 dirty words on pacifica channel, man got mad about his son hearing. lead to safe harbor provisiondo the same indecency standards apply to broadcast cable and internet?cable and internet not as pervasive as broadcasting1) What does The Communications Act of 1934 Section 315 on equal opportunities entail and what are the exemptions under the rule (types of programs where equal opportunities don't apply)?political candidatesdefamationprotection of a persons reputation. prove loss of revenue or falsely accusedslanderdefamation: spoken wordslibeldefamation: printed story or photodefenses against libeltruth, privilege (publics right to know), fair comment and criticismwhat are the 4 privacy torts that allow parties to bring civil lawsuitsagainst the media?secrets, lies, trespass, imagewhat agency is responsible for the regulation of advertising?federal trade commissionNational association of broadcastersthey create codes, written statements of principal guiding behavior. guide the general behavior of profession, thou shall do this or thou shall not do thatwhat is the role of the department of standards and practices?networks frightened of upsetting people so they self censor. this department will look at script if they feel it is indecentTim Wu, most important rule regarding the internet?network neutralitywhat will happen with yahoo and google in the future in terms of speed and service?if one charges more than another than that means it is fasterwhat is common carriage?stagecoach or inn or port, cant deny if they can afford it . network neutralityvacuum cleaner analogywhatever vacuum you plug into the wall it will work. whatever laptop or grid you use, it will workwhy do broadband providers believe network neutrality rules arent necessary?they would make a profit off some websites having advantages over others.what can a blog do based on merit and quality today and how may this be compromised in the future?same speed of service on the internet, may be affected by ISP charging rates changeinformation service vs telecommunications serviceinfo: look up something to find info. telecom: regulated by the fcc and bigger than the info service. what they use to recieve infowhat are the implications of reclassifying the internet as a utilityused to be regulated as something that ust gave you info: type in question and gives answer. internet is now used for entertainment, education, communication, people have businesses onlinewhat do ratings provide an estimate ofaudience sizetelephone recall methodasking people what they listened to last nighttelephone coincidental methodasking people what they are currently listening tonielson v arbitronnielson makes an audimeter which measures ratings by looking at what people are listening to but it does not measure demographics. arbitron is made which measures ratings with diary.ratingsviewing households/ tv households. percentage or proportion of all households with a TV set watching a particular program at a particular time.sweepsperiods when research companies collect ratings and viewer info in local TV markets. 4 times a yearQ ratingwhen you ask people what they think about characters on TV1) What is a probability (random) sample and why is it important to ratings?a mathematically random representative group that can be polled to assume the results of polling the whole groupDiarieswhat they watch and when they watch itadv and disadv of people metersadv: records exact data, people dont forget to do it like they did with the diaries. sent electronically. Disadv: hard to install and maintain, childrens viewing is hard to measure, measure only at home viewingMain criticisms of ratings systemsunder representing demographic groups, poor response rate, hyping the ratings,Over the Topdesignation in ratings for people who avoid all forms of media. using streaming contentWeb and mobile video usage being measured how?beacons and tags. can automatically be recorded by portable people meter. ratings companies recruit people and ask if they can have software on your hpone to keep track of what you reachpercentage of all active users over age 2 who visit a sitehitsnumber of times a file is requested from an internet sitepage viewnumber of times a web page is accessed during a time period- may contain many hitsretention ratepercent of unique visitors that visit a site 2 months in a rowunique visitorsnumber of different people who access a web page period- leave and return = one UV