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Geology Lab Final
Terms in this set (29)
What is a contour interval?
the difference in elevation between adjoining contour lines
How do contour maps and isopach maps differ?
contour maps measure elevation while isopach maps measure thickness
when a contour line crosses a river which way does the counter line "V"?
the "V" points upstream
what does it mean when contour lines are closely spaced or widely spaced?
closely spaced: contour lines represent steep slopes
widely spaced: contour lines represent gentle slopes
Name the four igneous rocks. Which are volcanic?
Porphyritic Rhyolite (V)
Porphyritic Basalt (V)
the viscosity of magma is controlled by what?
amount of silica (high silica, high velocity, felsic)
Can a human outrun pyroclastic flow?
no because its toxic gas and ash; but a human can outrun lava
Basalt lava usually comes from what volcano type? why?
basalt typically comes from volcanoes with low-viscosity lava such as shield volcanoes, which are low in silica and mafic
Rhyolite lava usually comes from what volcano type? why?
rhyolite typically comes from high-viscosity lava such as composite volcanoes because they are high in silica and felsic
volcanic ash and lava bombs; most far flung
volcanic mud flows (danger to far away communities)
hot toxic gas and ash
flows of molten rock
- Subduction: dense plate (oceanic) on bottom)
- temperature and pressure increase as it subducts, generating "Destroy and Recycle"
- heat and subducting plate create magma that rises to the surface to create composite volcanoes and shallow-intermediate earthquakes along subduction line
- Oceanic/Continental produce volcanic activity
- Oceanic/Oceanic or Continental/Continental produce mountain ranges
- Ex. North American plate
- As plates diverge, magma (low density) rise to create new plates that eventually become more dense as they cool (these plates are new along the ridge)
- Produces shallow earthquakes or islands along oceanic mountain ranges
- no volcanic activity
- neither destroy nor create
- generate scattered, shallow earthquakes (no direct points)
- widespread or no volcanic activity
- no clear topography
what is the difference between coal and shale formation?
coal is formed in swamps from plant/woody material while shale forms from algae and sediment in lakes and oceans
What are the key factors needed to form shale?
algae, burial, lack of oxygen
What are the key factors needed to form coal?
plant/woody material, burial, lack of oxygen
what are the components that make up a play?
source, migration, reservoir, trap/seal
what rock would make a good source rocks?
shale rocks, or any type of sediment package with organic, matured carbon
what is migration?
second step in a play; oil is lower in density, so it follows places it can go up
what rocks would make a good reservoir?
any sediment that has porosity and permeability, such as sandstone or limestone
what rocks would make a good trap/seal?
traps contain oil into one area, while seals prevent oil from going up. any rocks that are low in porosity and low in permeability would be good, such as granite, shale, gypsum, or halite
what are well logs?
Gamma Ray - measures Uranium, Potassium, Thorium (basically it gives a graph of how much you have)
- high lithology: shale
- low lithology: sandstone, limestone
what is viscosity?
resistance to flow, measured by the amount of silica
what are shield volcanoes?
big, broad, shallow volcanoes (mostly islands) with low viscosity (low silica) and are mafic (which means basalt rocks)
what are composite volcanoes?
medium volcanoes with high viscosity (high silica) that are felsic-intermediate (which means rhyolite rocks) that have explosive eruptions, which create pumice and glassy rocks. Also have lahars (snow and ash)
what are cinder cone volcanoes?
small, steep volcanoes with high viscosity but are mafic in composition. they usually form off of shield volcanoes, and are highly explosive, resulting in scoria formation.
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