In most organizations, ____ IT department effort goes into supporting existing systems and making them more valuable to users.
more than half of all
If significant changes take place in an existing system or if a new version is released, the IT department might develop a ____.
user training package
____ costs include expenses for items such as supplies, equipment rental, and software leases.
____ expenses vary significantly during a system's operational life and include spending to support maintenance activities.
____ activities include changing programs, procedures, or documentation to ensure correct system performance; adapting the system to changing requirements; and making the system operate more efficiently.
As shown in the accompanying figure, maintenance expenses usually are high when a system is implemented because problems must be detected, investigated, and resolved by ____ maintenance.
As shown in the accompanying figure, once a system becomes stable, maintenance costs usually remain low and involve minor ____ maintenance.
As shown in the accompanying figure, ____ when it becomes clear that the company plans to replace the system.
adaptive and corrective maintenance expenses increase rapidly, but perfective maintenance typically decreases
Corrective maintenance ____.
diagnoses and corrects errors in an operational system
Adaptive maintenance ____.
adds enhancements to an operational system and makes the system easier to use
Perfective maintenance ____.
involves changing an operational system to make it more efficient, reliable, or maintainable
Perfective maintenance usually is cost effective ____ the system's operational life.
during the middle of
Preventive maintenance ____.
requires analysis of areas where trouble is likely to occur in order to avoid problems
____ means examining the whole in order to learn about the individual elements.
____ involves studying the parts to understand the overall system.
____ is a process for controlling changes in system requirements during software development.
The ____ is responsible for assigning maintenance tasks to individuals or to a maintenance team.
When setting priorities, many IT managers believe that evaluating all projects together leads to the best possible decisions because ____.
all of the above
In a typical system, the initial version of the system is 1.0, and the release that includes the first set of maintenance changes is version ____.
Which of the following is not an advantage of the release methodology?
new features or upgrades are available more often
The ____ is the configuration of a system documented at the beginning of the project and consists of all necessary system requirements and design constraints.
The ____ documents a system at the end of the design phase, identifies any changes since the beginning of the project, and includes testing and verification of all system requirements and features.
A ____ is a formal reference point that measures system characteristics at a specific time.
The ____ describes the system at the beginning of system operation and includes the results of performance and acceptance tests for the operational system.
To measure system performance, companies use ____ testing, which uses a set of standard tests on one system to compare its performance and capacity to that of other systems.
____ include the volume of online data, the number of records accessed, and the number of transactions processed in a given time period.
____ describes the amount of data that a system can transfer in a fixed time period.
Bandwidth will not be measured in which of the following units?
Dbps(decibits per second)
____ also can be used to measure the quality of IT support or services by measuring the time from a user request for help to the resolution of the problem.
____ protects information from unauthorized disclosure and safeguards privacy.
____ prevents unauthorized users from creating, modifying, or deleting information.
____ ensures that authorized users have timely and reliable access to necessary information.
Risk ____ analyzes the organization's assets, threats, and vulnerabilities.
Risk ____ measures risk likelihood and impact.
A ____ is an internal or external entity that could endanger an asset.
Risk ____ develops safeguards that reduce risks and their impact.
____ means that in risk control, nothing is done.
____ shifts the risk to another asset or party, such as an insurance company, in risk control.
Preset ____ determine whether a firewall will allow network traffic to pass.
A(n) ____ is an unauthorized attempt to increase permission levels.