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COMM 426 Exam 2
Terms in this set (62)
What is a metaphor?
Understanding one idea in terms of a different idea.
Cultural metaphors seek to describe the mindset of a nation
Codes are...? What is the code for beauty? Fat? Car?
Codes are culture-bound
What do Americans want in a marketplace?
Consumer loyalty is in flux
Retailers increase profits through "push" strategies
Internet and smartphone apps allow for comparison shopping
Product differentiation may not be perceived as important
What makes us choose one brand over another?
When attributes of a brand are equal, new factors become salient
Consumers demand new "values" in the marketplace, in line with their own values
Some may want to be reached in their own language
Corporate policies may be important
"I am what I buy"
How was value previously defined?
by quality and price
How is value currently defined?
by quality and price and intangibles, often defined by cultures and subcultures
What is relationship building?
How organizations create a perception of shared interests with a particular group of consumers
Consumer loyalty is often attached to "identity" groups
Consumption becomes a medium for creating and communicating identity and values
What are the individual relations influence on brands?
Stage of family life cycle
Social and family networks
Cultural and subcultural background
The themes consumers use to define themselves are mirrored in their perceptions of brand personality and symbolism
What is ethnic marketing?
Recognizes the distinctive economic and cultural needs of members of US subcultures
Supports media relevant to subcultures
Recognizes and values distinctive aspects of their lifestyle
Speaks the "language" of subcultures
Economic needs becoming less important while cultural needs are more important
US view of Self and Identity
Perception of self is grounded in individualism
Irony: without the reference point of groups to identify with, our self remains undefined
In the US, ethnic identity is "chosen," rather than pre-determined
Some choose some aspects of ethnicity, and not others
Some may choose symbolic identification of a heritage they know little about
What works best in multicultural marketing?
affiliations through philanthropy, policies and messages
Questions to ask about subculture as consumer identity
Can the group be distinguished demographically and behaviorally?
Is the group sensitive to marketing overtures?
What is the diversity within the group you are targeting?
What are the media use patterns of the group?
What is transmigration?
The process by which organizations, brands and decision makers become "fluent" in multiple cultures within the US market
Cultural compatibility is the foundation of most effective marketing plans
What shifts have taken place?
Long-term profitability to shared interests
Market segmentation to market identification
Mass communication to consumer dialog
Extensive information to intensive information
Origins of the US Latino Market
Puerto Rico (9%)
Central and South America (15%)
Why is the Latino Market a growing market?
Increasing purchase power
Conditions vary widely from state to state, from group to group, and from immigration to immigration
Where are the largest concentrations of Latinos?
Texas and California
New York is the center for?
Miami is a?
San Anotonio's Latin population is?
Puerto Rican, Central American and Caribbean Latinos
almost entirely Mexican
What keeps language alive?
Changes in names of spanish throughout country, Southeast and Texas? Midwest? New York? California for mexicans? What does the industry favor?
in the Southeast and Texas, "Hispanic" is preferred
The Midwest favors "Latino"
New Yorkers use terms interchangeably
"Chicano" refers only to Mexicans, but is widely used in California
Industry favors Latino
Reasons for immigration, mexico and PR? Cuba? Central America?
Mexico and Puerto Rico: economy-based
Cuba: political refugees
Central America: war and political unrest in 80s, now largely economically driven
Stages of Latinos Immigrating
4. First Borns
5. Deep Roots
6. Generation N
Less than ¼ of life in the US
Attitudes and values stem from country of origin
Low level of assimilation/identification with US culture
Similar products to home increase familiarity
Spanish-dominant and/or Spanish-dependent
¼ to ½ life in US
Youth in country of origin, but often young adulthood in the US
Many characteristics of Stage 1 continue, but media preferences and consumer preferences move closer to American mainstream
Have spent most of their life in the US
Exhibit many of the characteristics of first-borns
More comfortable with US products than country-of-origin
Function as bilingual and bicultural
Likely to maintain cultural values and attitudes of country of origin - this may become more pronounced later in life
Born in US to at least one foreign parent
Entire lives have been dominated by US media, brands, attitudes and behaviors
Function in both worlds, but not usually fluent in parents' country of origin culture
Higher use of English in day-to-day life, although Spanish may dominate home life
Second generation American; parents born in US
Totally assimilated into American culture, but still value heritage
English dominant, but may still retain some use of Spanish
Strong value identification may remain
The "cross-over" generation
Under 35-year-old Latinos; first or second generation Americans
Responsible for the "Hispanicization" of American mainstream culture
Still, differences in country of origin affect may impact mainstream American attitudes (Think J.Lo. playing Selena)
Group that wants to refocus on spanish they may have lost
What are the social value anchors of the Latino Market?
Life stage rituals become a major means of expressing identity
Insights into Latino Market
Spanish language has symbolic meaning: get it right
Latino is an "identity," not a physical type
Latinos are no more brand-loyal than mainstream Americans, but do like to express themselves through purchases when possible
Being seen as part of the US is a critical element for later-stage Latinos
Coming full circle, embracing culture
The one drop rule
if you have any black in you, you are black - started in slavery
white is pure - any trace of black in heritage, you are black - outruled in 1967 but people still follow it
What is the African American market potential?
Increasing household numbers, especially if you consider those who describe themselves as "Mixed Race"
Disposable income rising faster than the general US rate
Poverty rates continue to fall
Largest regions with African American populations
South and Midwest
How is African American a young market?
50% of the market is under 30
What are described as the most "trusted" sources of product information for African Americans?
African American targeted magazines
Also, Consumer Reports
Care about expertise than avg. american
What is important for African Americans before making a purchase?
discussion, oral communication is key
Who are the highest consumers of broadcast media?
Subscribe to Premium channels at a higher rate than White Americans or Latinos
Find Black targeted media meaningful and trustworthy, but not to the exclusion of other programming
What is the digital divide?
introducing technology into classrooms and not managing it - white students received computer access a lot more, begin to interact with digital age more naturally
smart phones are killing this because more people have access - so few people use desktops anymore
What is the "culture" question?
Black culture is rooted in Africa, but is a product of the United States
Some indicators imply that Blacks may be more collectivistic than mainstream US
More "circular" than "linear" in time orientation, by some measures
What is the Africa-Centered perspective?
Authenticity (maintaining can be an issue)
Telling it like it is
Seeing the good as well as the bad
Distrust of mainstream institutions
Why is there distrust in media portrayals for African Americans?
Stereotypes and tropes abound - ethical marketers shouldn't add to the "noise"
What is lifestyle marketing?
Strategic communications messages linked specifically to a salient facet of an individual's personality, or a significant activity of interest for an individual
What is life stage marketing?
Strategic communications messages linked to a group defined by some "zeitgeist" characteristic shared by people who experienced similar historical events
What are some Zeitgeist effects for the gay market?
Stonewall Riots (1969)
HIV/AIDS epidemic (1970s-1980s)
Marriage equality movement (2001-Present)
What marketers see and media sells for the gay market?
Educated - but much easier to reach
High disposable income (DINKS)
What are DINKS?
Double Income No Kids - Gay market
What is gay-sploitation?
The company profits more than the gay market itself
Inappropriate use of a gay character
What is the Mature Market?
For advertising, usually defined by age:55+
In the US, that's a cohort of 40.3 million people 65 and older
It now spans about 30-40 years, based on life expectancy
What marketers see and media sells for the mature market?
Three distinct markets, age wise:
The "Sandwich" Generation (pre-retirement)
The Golden Oldies (retirement)
The Elder Statespeople (80+)
Market runs the gamut in affluence, geography, health, race
What is key when marketing to mature market?
What is the problem with marketing specifically to Asian American market?
Located in top DMA markets
If you buy the top DMAs, almost as much as a national campaign - Buying New York to talk to 2% of it
Who are the group most likely to emigrate with a bachelor's degree in hand?
What is driving growth for Asian Americans?
Recruitment in STEM fields and finance
How many Asian Americans are US born? What is the problem with marketing to those born abroad?
Only about a third of the Asian American population is US-born
2/3 were actually born abroad, which means they retain more of their home countries' cultural values
Long term orientation
What are Tiger moms?
Asian American moms who are completely driven for children's success
control their activities so that they succeed in life
How are Asian Americans living in two languages at once?
About 70% of Chinese Americans say they speak English well or very well. However, more than 80% indicate they use mostly Chinese at home.
Who has the highest median income?
Values shared by Asian Americans
80% live in 2-parent households
50% hold a bachelor's degree or higher
63% have at least one savings account
69% say hard work is critically important
What are some cultural connections with Asian Americans?
Media and entertainment keep culture and values alive
Many Chinese-language newspapers are published in the US
Home language websites and news aggregators remain important
Continuing issues with the "Great Firewall of China"
More and more Asian media are offering English language editions for American born audiences
How is media use discriminating against Asian Americans?
no medium counts more than 45% of the Chinese markets as regular users
Media use is spread across both traditional and digital platforms
Higher than average smartphone and tablet ownership
More likely than other Americans to "timeshift," fitting media into their schedules
What are Confuscian Values for Asian Americans?
Filial piety: reverence for elders
Family plays a central role in decisions, including majors and marriages
Who experiences "cultural invisibility"?
Asian Americans - Stereotyping is common
Little impact on US entertainment media
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