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CSET Multiple Subject: Life Science (Biology)
Terms in this set (58)
The science of life.
Lack true roots, stems, and leaves. Range from a single cell to huge seaweed; mostly they inhabit lakes and oceans.
Lack true roots, stems, and leaves. This includes molds, yeasts, and mushrooms. These lack chlorophyll and thus are incapable of manufacturing food, so they are either parasites, preying on other living organisms, or saprophytes, existing on waste products and decaying organisms.
Two organisms, a fungus and an alga, living together symbiotically.
Lack seeds and reproduce by means of spores, each of which may develop into a new plant without fertilization.
Cone-bearing plants (including pines) with seeds exposed on cone scales.
Flowering plants that bear their seeds within fruits.
Small egg. Within plants, this small egg develops into a seed. Within flowers, these small eggs are located in the actual flower (inside its ovary).
A metabolic pathway that converts light energy into chemical energy. Plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, plus water, into simple sugars. These sugars are then used as building blocks and form the main structural component of the plant. Thus, plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen.
The smallest amount of living matter, a bit of organic material that is the unit of structure and function for all organisms. The essential subdivisions of a cell are the cell membrane, the cytoplasm, and the cell nucleus.
The Cell Membrane
Semi-permeable, allowing some substances to pass while excluding others.
The main material within a cell. Varies in consistency from a fluid to a semisolid. Embedded inside our functional bodies.
The Cell Nucleus
A separate mass containing nucleoli and chromosomes, the genetic material.
A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. This includes most of a cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long and linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The main function of this is too maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression.
Organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. Absorbing light and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide to produce sugars, the raw material for energy and biomass production in all green plants and the animals that depend on them, directly or indirectly, for food. Additionally, these capture light.
A membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In charge of the cell cycle and cell growth.
Cannot perform photosynthesis. They derive their food from other organisms. Plants and animals are classified into phyla on the basis of their cells, tissues, organs, and overall organization. Each phylum is a major group of organisms.
Eat plants directly.
Prey on other animals, but this food chain, too, ends I'm plants.
Is a the breaking down of chemicals in the body into a form that can be absorbed. It is the process by which the body breaks down chemicals into smaller components that can be absorbed by the blood stream.
The circulatory system
An organ system that moves nutrients, gases, and wastes to and from cells, helps fight diseases, and stabilizes, body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis. The main components are the heart, blood, and blood vessels.
Transport oxygen in combination with the iron pigment, hemoglobin.
White blood cells
To fight infection, while platelets initiate the clotting necessary to stop bleeding after a wound.
Blood and lymph
Two types of fluids move through the circulatory system.
The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels for the lymphatic system.
The cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system collectively make up this system.
Left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, and right ventricle.
Allow for gas exchange.
The sensory system
Includes those specialized structures that initiate a nerve impulse after being affected by the environment. The eyes are the organs of vision. Light rays are refracted as they pass through the cornea, lens, and vitreous body to focus on the retina, where an image is formed. The optic nerve then carries impulses from the light-sensitive cells of the retina to the brain.
The nervous system
Composed of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves that extend throughout the body.
The largest part of the brain; it receives information from the senses and makes conscious decisions.
Complex chemical systems, organized in ways that promote reproduction and some measure of sustainability or survival.
A branch of biology, the general science that studies living organisms. Focuses on the relationship between organisms and their environment. Each living organism has an ongoing and continual relationship with every other element that makes up its environment.
Interacting living organisms and their non-living environment in an area. Studies usually focus on the movement of energy and matter through the system.
Almost all run on energy captured by the sun by primary producers through photosynthesis.
The entire movement of an ecosystem
The entire movement of chemicals in an ecosystem is termed a biogeochemical cycle, and includes the carbon and nitrogen cycle.
Includes all the members of a given species that live in a defined geographic area.
A characteristic of an organism that has been favored by natural selection and increases the fitness of its possessor.
The change in living organisms that allow them to live successfully in an environment. Adaptions enable living organisms to cope with environmental stresses and pressures. Adaptions can be structural, behavioral, or physiological.
Special body parts of an organism that help it survive in its natural habitat. For example, skin color, shape, and body covering.
Special ways a particular organism behaves to survive in its natural habitat.
Systems present in an organism that allow it to reform certain biochemical reactions. For example, making venom, secreting slime, and homeostasis.
Primarily governed by chance events, the reactions these events provoke on non-living materials, and the responses by organisms to the conditions surrounding them.
The eating relationships between species within an ecosystem. Organisms are connected to the organisms they consume by lines representing the direction of organism or energy transfer. This is the flow of energy from one organism to the next and to the next, and so on.
Producers (food chain)
Organisms in an ecosystem that produce biomass from inorganic compounds. Producers are the green plants in an ecosystem that can manufacture their own food through the process of photosynthesis.
Primary Consumers (Herbivores/food chain)
Plant eaters. Primary consumers can range in size from insects to elephants.
Secondary Consumers (food chain)
Carnivores. They feed on the primary and secondary consumers.
Tertiary Consumers (food chain)
Organisms that feed on smaller primary and secondary consumers.
Decomposes (food chain)
Organisms that consume dead organisms and in doing so, carry out the natural process of decomposers. Uses deceased organisms and non-living organic compounds as their food source. Primarily bacteria and fungi.
Interconnected energy systems. Demonstrates the alternate energy links available to an organism. These help explain predator/prey relationships in an ecosystem and include networks of food chains.
Illustrates energy flow in an ecosystem. The base of the pyramid (producers) supports all of the other levels of the pyramid. At each succeeding level of the food pyramid, there is a decrease in available energy.
All living things have a life cycle. A life cycle represents the stages an organism goes through from birth to death.
A distinct change in physical appearance an organism can go through between birth and adulthood. Involves a dramatic transformation of morphology and physiology.
Frog Life Cycle
Egg, tadpole, tadpole with hind legs, adult frog.
Butterfly Life Cycle
Butterflies go through a complete metamorphosis.
Butterfly Life Cycle
Egg/embryonic stage, larva/caterpillar/feeding stage, pupa (chrysalis)/cocoon stage, adult butterfly (imago) stage.
Reproduce sexually producing fruit.
A form of reproduction which does not involve meiosis, or fertilization. Only one parent is involved in asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-called organisms such as the arches, bacteria, and protests.
Recommended textbook explanations
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Principles of Life
David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis, H. Craig Heller
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
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