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81 terms

Medical Assistant- Ch 2 The Healthcare Industry

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accreditation
process by which an organization is recognized for adherence to a group of standards that meet or exceed expectations of the accrediting agency
advent
a coming into or being in use
allopathic
a word used to contrast homeopathic medicine with mainstream medicine; characterized by an effort to counteract the symptoms of disease treatments that produce effects opposite the symptoms
alternative medicine
preventative health care practices that are
ambulatory
able to walk about, not bedridden
cardiac arrhythmias
irregular heartbeats caused by malfunction of the electrical system of the heart
case management
assessing and planning patient care, including referral and follow-up, ensuring continuity and quality of care
chiropractic
medical discipline focused on the nervous system, involving manual adjustment of the spine, treating disorders and promoting wellness
credentialing
how you get professional or medical privileges; verifying and evaluating a person's credentials
dissection
separating into pieces and exposing parts for scientific examination
encounter
any contact between a healthcare provider and a patient, resulting in treatment or evaluation, not limited to in person
fermentation
an enzymatically controlled transformation of an organic compound
holistic
in medicine, concerned with all systems of the body, rather than individual parts
homeopathy
alternative medicine that attempts to stimulate the body to heal itself;
hospice
concept of care involving health professional and volunteers who provide medical, psychological, and spiritual support to terminally ill patients and their loved ones
indicators
statistic values that indicate quality of care provided by a healthcare facility
indicted
charged with a crime by findings of a jury through due process
indigent
totally lacking in something of need
innate
determined by factors present at birth
innocuous
no effect, adverse or otherwise; harmless
mysticism
experience of seeming to have direct communication with God or ultimate reality
naturopathy
alternative to conventional medicine, uses holistic methods, herbs and natural substances, with the belief the body can heal itself (licensed in 15 states 7 P.R. and the V.I.
osteopathic
medicine based on the theory that disturbances in the musculoskeletal system can affect other body parts causing many disorder that can be treated with conventional medical, surgical, pharmacological, and other therapeutic procedures
pandemic
a condition in which the majority of people in a country, number of countries or geographic area are affected
peer review organization
a group of medical reviewers contracted by the Centers for Medicare or Medicaid Services to ensure quality control and medical necessity of services provided by a facility
philanthropist
individual who makes an active effort to promote human welfare
putrefaction
decomposition of animal matter that results in a foul smell
robotics
technology dealing with design, construction and operation of robots in automation
staff privileges
allowance of a healthcare professional to practice at a specific medical facility
standards
item or indicator used as measure of quality or compliance with a statutory or accrediting body's policies and regulations
subluxations
slight misalignments of the vertebrae or a partial dislocation
telemedicine
use of telecommunications in medicine over great distances
teleradiology
use of telecommunications to enhance and improve the results of radiological procedures
treatises
arguments in writing with a methodic discussion of the facts and principles involved and the conclusions reached
triage
sorting of and allocation of treatment to patient according to a system of priorities designed to maximize the number of survivors and treat the sickest patients first
staff of aesculapias
Depicts a serpent encircling a staff.
Signifies the art of healing.
Adopted by the American Medical Association as the symbol of medicine.
caduceus
Mythological staff belonging to Hermes.
Depicts a staff encircled by two serpents, with wings at the top.
The staff was considered to have magical powers. Icon for the U.S. Army Medical Corps
Hippocrates
Known as 'Father of Medicine'
Wrote the Hippocratic Oath
View of medicine was based on scientific evidence.
Credited with taking some of the mysticism out of medicine.
Johns Hopkins University
First school to partner with a hospital,Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Exposed students to actual patients during their medical training.
Andreas Vesalius
Father of Modern Anatomy.
Published a book detailing the structure of the human body that conflicted with the earlier teachings of Galen. This led to his persecution by his colleagues.
William Harvey
Discovered that the heart acts as a muscular pump, moving blood throughout the body.
He also offered that blood circulation is a continuous cycle. England considered Harvey its "medical Shakespeare."
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Discovered the magnification process.
First to observe bacteria and protozoa through a lens.
Marcello Malpighi
Described the pulmonary and capillary system. First histologist (study of tissue)
John Hunter
Founder of Scientific Surgery.
The first to introduce artificial feeding into the stomach through a tube.
He studied venereal diseases and pioneered tissue transfer.
Edward Jenner
Gave the first vaccination. Smallpox. Studied smallpox and cowpox.
Discovery of the vaccination process.
Rene Laennec
Developed the stethoscope, which began as a rolled paper, allowing him to hear sounds inside the body.
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis
Savior of Mothers because of his work fighting puerperal fever.
Realized disinfecting and washing hands when moving from one patient to another would reduce the spread of germs.
Died from puerperal fever himself, having been infected by a cut on his finger during an autopsy.
Louis Pasteur
Developed pasteurization, a method of destroying microorganisms.
The last 7 years of his life were devoted to the Pasteur Institute, which still exists in France today.
Joseph Lister
Father of Sterile Surgery.
Discovered microorganisms must be kept out of wounds and surgical sites.
Robert Koch
Koch's Postulates
-rules that must be in place before an organism can be accepted as the causative agent in a disease.
Paul Ehrlich
Formula 606
-designed to fight syphilis.
This drug was the first that was injected into the body to destroy a specific organism.
Crawford Williamson Long
First to use an anesthetic agent.
Discovered that medical students who were under the influence of ether did not seem to feel pain, and he later successfully used ether as an anesthetic agent during surgery.
Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen
Discovered x rays
Awarded the Nobel Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen Prize in Physics,1901.
Marie and Pierre Curie
discovered radium
Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics,1902.
Florence Nightingale
Founder of nursing,
The "Lady with the Lamp" because of her efforts in caring for wounded soldiers.
Founded the Nightingale School and Home for Nurses, the beginning of nursing education.
Clara Barton
Founder of the American Red Cross.
Elizabeth Blackwell
First female medical doctor in the United States. Established the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children, the first hospital staffed entirely by women.
Lillian Wald was instrumental in establishing the world's first public school nursing system.
Margaret Sanger
Proponent of birth control when it was illegal to import or distribute any device designed to prevent pregnancy or induce abortion.
The research she advocated into hormonal contraception eventually led to the development of the birth control pill.
Named honorary chairperson of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America when it was formed in 1941.
Walter Reed
Proved yellow fever could be transmitted by a mosquito bite.
Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best
Isolated insulin for use in treating diabetics
Sir Alexander Fleming
Discovered penicillin accidentally as he was researching.
Helen Taussig, Alfred Blalock, Vivien Thomas
Developed the lifesaving Blalock-Taussig procedure for blue babies.
Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin
Developed an injectable vaccination against polio.
Werner Forssmann
Developed the cardiac technique of catheterization.
Christian Barnard
Performed the first human heart transplant.
Elisabeth Kübler-Ross
Pioneered the understanding of the grief process.
Dr. David Ho
AIDS research.
Scientific Director and Chief Executive Officer of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center in New York.
Dr. C. Everett Koop
Former Surgeon General of the United States.
Proponent of tobacco awareness.
Dr. Antonia Novella
First Hispanic and first woman appointed Surgeon General.
The World Health Organization (WHO)
Specialized agency of the United Nations.
Promotes cooperation among nations to control and eliminate diseases worldwide.
Created and maintains the ICD coding system to classify diseases and conditions.
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
Principal U.S. agency for providing essential human services.
Consists of more than 300 programs.
Oversees Medicare and Medicaid programs
United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)
Conducts research programs in national defense and infectious diseases
Works with WHO and CDC
Researches 4 biosafety levels of diseases with varying degrees of biohazard potential
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Principal U.S. agency concerned with health and safety of people throughout the world.
Clearinghouse for health information and statistics.
Researches origin and occurrence of diseases.
Develops methods for disease control and prevention.
National Institutes of Health
Division of the Department of Health and Human Services.
Thousands of research projects are underway at any given time.
Furnishes biomedical information to healthcare professions.
Hospitals
Specialty, teaching, community
Private hospitals are usually run by a corporation.
Numerous departments within the hospitals carry out a wide variety of functions.
Credentialing involves determining if an individual should have staff privileges.
Hospitals go through an accreditation process, often conducted by JCAHO.
Standards or indicators are used to determine compliance with regulations.
Ambulatory Care
Physician offices- single practice, partnerships, group practices, or multispecialty clinics.
Other types
Occupational health centers
Sleep centers
Physical therapy centers
Urgent care centers
Freestanding surgical centers
Dialysis centers
Skilled nursing facilities
Assisted living facilities
Independent retirement communities
Other Healthcare Facilities
Physician office laboratories
Diagnostic laboratories
Home health agencies
Medical suppliers
The Title of Doctor
Doctors of Medicine
Doctors of Osteopathy
Doctors of Chiropractic
Dentists
Optometrists
Podiatrists
Other Doctorates
licensed of certified professionals
physician assistants
nurse practitioners
nurse anesthetists
registered nurses
licensed practical/vocational nurses
medical technologists
medical laboratory technicians
physical therapists
respiratory therapists
occupational therapists
cardiovascular technologists
diagnostic medical sonographers or technologists
radiology technicians
paramedics
emergency medical technicians
registered dieticians
Moses
Offered a group of rules related to health to the Hebrews around 1205 BC.
Was an advocate of public health
Considered the first public health officer.
Galen- Prince of Physicians
Wrote more than 500 treatises
Much was inaccurate, based on the dissection of apes and pigs instead of the human body.
Teachings were considered truthful and valid until human dissections began
Believed that medicine was not to be practiced for profit.