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process by which an organization is recognized for adherence to a group of standards that meet or exceed expectations of the accrediting agency


a coming into or being in use


a word used to contrast homeopathic medicine with mainstream medicine; characterized by an effort to counteract the symptoms of disease treatments that produce effects opposite the symptoms

alternative medicine

preventative health care practices that are


able to walk about, not bedridden

cardiac arrhythmias

irregular heartbeats caused by malfunction of the electrical system of the heart

case management

assessing and planning patient care, including referral and follow-up, ensuring continuity and quality of care


medical discipline focused on the nervous system, involving manual adjustment of the spine, treating disorders and promoting wellness


how you get professional or medical privileges; verifying and evaluating a person's credentials


separating into pieces and exposing parts for scientific examination


any contact between a healthcare provider and a patient, resulting in treatment or evaluation, not limited to in person


an enzymatically controlled transformation of an organic compound


in medicine, concerned with all systems of the body, rather than individual parts


alternative medicine that attempts to stimulate the body to heal itself;


concept of care involving health professional and volunteers who provide medical, psychological, and spiritual support to terminally ill patients and their loved ones


statistic values that indicate quality of care provided by a healthcare facility


charged with a crime by findings of a jury through due process


totally lacking in something of need


determined by factors present at birth


no effect, adverse or otherwise; harmless


experience of seeming to have direct communication with God or ultimate reality


alternative to conventional medicine, uses holistic methods, herbs and natural substances, with the belief the body can heal itself (licensed in 15 states 7 P.R. and the V.I.


medicine based on the theory that disturbances in the musculoskeletal system can affect other body parts causing many disorder that can be treated with conventional medical, surgical, pharmacological, and other therapeutic procedures


a condition in which the majority of people in a country, number of countries or geographic area are affected

peer review organization

a group of medical reviewers contracted by the Centers for Medicare or Medicaid Services to ensure quality control and medical necessity of services provided by a facility


individual who makes an active effort to promote human welfare


decomposition of animal matter that results in a foul smell


technology dealing with design, construction and operation of robots in automation

staff privileges

allowance of a healthcare professional to practice at a specific medical facility


item or indicator used as measure of quality or compliance with a statutory or accrediting body's policies and regulations


slight misalignments of the vertebrae or a partial dislocation


use of telecommunications in medicine over great distances


use of telecommunications to enhance and improve the results of radiological procedures


arguments in writing with a methodic discussion of the facts and principles involved and the conclusions reached


sorting of and allocation of treatment to patient according to a system of priorities designed to maximize the number of survivors and treat the sickest patients first

staff of aesculapias

Depicts a serpent encircling a staff.
Signifies the art of healing.
Adopted by the American Medical Association as the symbol of medicine.


Mythological staff belonging to Hermes.
Depicts a staff encircled by two serpents, with wings at the top.
The staff was considered to have magical powers. Icon for the U.S. Army Medical Corps


Known as 'Father of Medicine'
Wrote the Hippocratic Oath
View of medicine was based on scientific evidence.
Credited with taking some of the mysticism out of medicine.

Johns Hopkins University

First school to partner with a hospital,Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Exposed students to actual patients during their medical training.

Andreas Vesalius

Father of Modern Anatomy.
Published a book detailing the structure of the human body that conflicted with the earlier teachings of Galen. This led to his persecution by his colleagues.

William Harvey

Discovered that the heart acts as a muscular pump, moving blood throughout the body.
He also offered that blood circulation is a continuous cycle. England considered Harvey its "medical Shakespeare."

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Discovered the magnification process.
First to observe bacteria and protozoa through a lens.

Marcello Malpighi

Described the pulmonary and capillary system. First histologist (study of tissue)

John Hunter

Founder of Scientific Surgery.
The first to introduce artificial feeding into the stomach through a tube.
He studied venereal diseases and pioneered tissue transfer.

Edward Jenner

Gave the first vaccination. Smallpox. Studied smallpox and cowpox.
Discovery of the vaccination process.

Rene Laennec

Developed the stethoscope, which began as a rolled paper, allowing him to hear sounds inside the body.

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis

Savior of Mothers because of his work fighting puerperal fever.
Realized disinfecting and washing hands when moving from one patient to another would reduce the spread of germs.
Died from puerperal fever himself, having been infected by a cut on his finger during an autopsy.

Louis Pasteur

Developed pasteurization, a method of destroying microorganisms.
The last 7 years of his life were devoted to the Pasteur Institute, which still exists in France today.

Joseph Lister

Father of Sterile Surgery.
Discovered microorganisms must be kept out of wounds and surgical sites.

Robert Koch

Koch's Postulates
-rules that must be in place before an organism can be accepted as the causative agent in a disease.

Paul Ehrlich

Formula 606
-designed to fight syphilis.
This drug was the first that was injected into the body to destroy a specific organism.

Crawford Williamson Long

First to use an anesthetic agent.
Discovered that medical students who were under the influence of ether did not seem to feel pain, and he later successfully used ether as an anesthetic agent during surgery.

Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen

Discovered x rays
Awarded the Nobel Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen Prize in Physics,1901.

Marie and Pierre Curie

discovered radium
Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics,1902.

Florence Nightingale

Founder of nursing,
The "Lady with the Lamp" because of her efforts in caring for wounded soldiers.
Founded the Nightingale School and Home for Nurses, the beginning of nursing education.

Clara Barton

Founder of the American Red Cross.

Elizabeth Blackwell

First female medical doctor in the United States. Established the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children, the first hospital staffed entirely by women.
Lillian Wald was instrumental in establishing the world's first public school nursing system.

Margaret Sanger

Proponent of birth control when it was illegal to import or distribute any device designed to prevent pregnancy or induce abortion.
The research she advocated into hormonal contraception eventually led to the development of the birth control pill.
Named honorary chairperson of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America when it was formed in 1941.

Walter Reed

Proved yellow fever could be transmitted by a mosquito bite.

Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best

Isolated insulin for use in treating diabetics

Sir Alexander Fleming

Discovered penicillin accidentally as he was researching.

Helen Taussig, Alfred Blalock, Vivien Thomas

Developed the lifesaving Blalock-Taussig procedure for blue babies.

Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin

Developed an injectable vaccination against polio.

Werner Forssmann

Developed the cardiac technique of catheterization.

Christian Barnard

Performed the first human heart transplant.

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross

Pioneered the understanding of the grief process.

Dr. David Ho

AIDS research.
Scientific Director and Chief Executive Officer of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center in New York.

Dr. C. Everett Koop

Former Surgeon General of the United States.
Proponent of tobacco awareness.

Dr. Antonia Novella

First Hispanic and first woman appointed Surgeon General.

The World Health Organization (WHO)

Specialized agency of the United Nations.
Promotes cooperation among nations to control and eliminate diseases worldwide.
Created and maintains the ICD coding system to classify diseases and conditions.

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)

Principal U.S. agency for providing essential human services.
Consists of more than 300 programs.
Oversees Medicare and Medicaid programs

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)

Conducts research programs in national defense and infectious diseases
Works with WHO and CDC
Researches 4 biosafety levels of diseases with varying degrees of biohazard potential

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Principal U.S. agency concerned with health and safety of people throughout the world.
Clearinghouse for health information and statistics.
Researches origin and occurrence of diseases.
Develops methods for disease control and prevention.

National Institutes of Health

Division of the Department of Health and Human Services.
Thousands of research projects are underway at any given time.
Furnishes biomedical information to healthcare professions.


Specialty, teaching, community
Private hospitals are usually run by a corporation.
Numerous departments within the hospitals carry out a wide variety of functions.
Credentialing involves determining if an individual should have staff privileges.
Hospitals go through an accreditation process, often conducted by JCAHO.
Standards or indicators are used to determine compliance with regulations.

Ambulatory Care

Physician offices- single practice, partnerships, group practices, or multispecialty clinics.
Other types
Occupational health centers
Sleep centers
Physical therapy centers
Urgent care centers
Freestanding surgical centers
Dialysis centers
Skilled nursing facilities
Assisted living facilities
Independent retirement communities

Other Healthcare Facilities

Physician office laboratories
Diagnostic laboratories
Home health agencies
Medical suppliers

The Title of Doctor

Doctors of Medicine
Doctors of Osteopathy
Doctors of Chiropractic
Other Doctorates

licensed of certified professionals

physician assistants
nurse practitioners
nurse anesthetists
registered nurses
licensed practical/vocational nurses
medical technologists
medical laboratory technicians
physical therapists
respiratory therapists
occupational therapists
cardiovascular technologists
diagnostic medical sonographers or technologists
radiology technicians
emergency medical technicians
registered dieticians


Offered a group of rules related to health to the Hebrews around 1205 BC.
Was an advocate of public health
Considered the first public health officer.

Galen- Prince of Physicians

Wrote more than 500 treatises
Much was inaccurate, based on the dissection of apes and pigs instead of the human body.
Teachings were considered truthful and valid until human dissections began
Believed that medicine was not to be practiced for profit.

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