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History
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Native Americans
the first people to live in North America
land bridge
The way that the first people may have arrived in the Americas. It connected Siberia and Alaska around 40,000 years ago.
Sioux
a member of a group of North American Indian peoples who spoke a Siouan language and who ranged from Lake Michigan to the Rocky Mountains
Pawnee
Native American tribe of present day Kansas and Nebraska first visited by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1541. Nothing much is mentioned of them until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when successive incursions of Spanish, French and English settlers attempted to enlarge their possessions. The tribes however tended to make alliances as and when it suited them. Believed to have numbered over 10,000 in 1780, by 1900 only 600 remained due to war, smallpox and cholera.
Pueblo
a member of any of about two dozen Native American peoples called pueblos by the Spanish because they live in villages built of adobe and rock
Adena
A mound builder society that was centered in the Ohio River Valley and flourished from about 700 B.C. to A.D 100
Hopewell
A mound builder society that was centered in the Ohio River Valley from about 200 B.C to AD 400
Mississippian
the last Mound Builder culture that lasted from AD 800 to the arrival of the Europeans in the 1500s.
Iroquois
any member of the warlike North American Indian peoples formerly living in New York state
Mayas
A Native American people, living in what is now Mexico and northern Central America, who had a flourishing civilization from before the birth of Jesus until around 1600, when they were conquered by the Spanish. They are known for their astronomical observations, accurate calendars, sophisticated hieroglyphics, and pyramids.
Incas
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
Aztecs
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
technology
the means by which a society provides its members with those things needed and desired
compass
navigational instrument for finding directions.
printing press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
Spain
funded Columbus's journey to India
Moors
the group of Muslims from North Africa who conquered Spain in the eighth century
Ferdinand and Isabella
During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
protestant reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England. (p. 446)
trade
heavily influenced religion and the spread of culture, as well as the economy
Portugal
Sent explorers and colonists in the 15th and 16th centuries created a vast overseas empire
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
nation-states
Group of people united under one independent government. These formed out of nationalism.
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
New World
name given to the Americas (North and South America) during the time of European exploration and colonization
Amerigo Vespucci
Florentine navigator who explored the coast of South America
papal line of demarcation
line drawn by the Pope dividing the land in the New World into 2 parts, with Portugal being granted the East and Spain being granted the West
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who discovered the Pacific Ocean (1475-1519)
Hernan Cortez
a Spanish conquistador who landed on the east coast of what we now know as Mexico in 1519; he was looking for gold and glory, became friends with the Aztec emperor and later killed him and many Aztec nobels
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
conquistadors
Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
encomienda system
priviledge given by Spain to Spanish settlers in the Americas which allowed to control the lands and people of a certain territory
asiento system
System that took slaves to the New World to work for the Spanish. Required that a tax be paid to the Spanish ruler for each slave brought over.
John Cabot
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
Giovanni de Verrazano
Italian navigator, who was commissioned by France to find a Northwest Passage leading through the Americas to Asia; explored part of North America's eastern coast, including New York harbor (France)
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
Father Jacques Marquette
French missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and later founded St. Ignace, Michigan. Along with Louis Jolliet were the first non-native american to see and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River.
Robert de la Salle
Frenchman who followed the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the region for France and naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV
Henry Hudson
Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
joint-stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Father Junipero Serra
A major Canadian Franciscan friar that founded the mission chain in California. He was a great promoter of the spread of Christianity because of his missions.
Virginia Company
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
Jamestown
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. It grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Captain John Smith
Organized Jamestown and imposed a harsh law "He who will not work shall not eat."
John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Pocahontas
a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)
royal colony
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Plymouth colony
A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Seperatists, in 1620. The Seperatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed. It became part of Massachusetts in 1691.
Separatists
Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
Pilgrims
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
Mayflower
the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620
Mayflower Compact
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Virginia House of Burgesses
1619. First elected legilative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia. Served as an early model of elected government in the New World.
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