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76 terms

Medical Terminology Ch2 - Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole

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Cell membrane
not only surrounds and protects the cell but also regulates what passes into and out of the cell
Nucleus
controls the operations of the cell, it directs cell division and determines the structure and function of the cell
Chromosomes
are rod-like structures within the nucleus, all human body cells (except for the egg and sperm) contain 23 pairs of chromosomes (eggs and sperm have 23 unpaired chromosomes)
Genes
contain a chemical called DNA
DNA
regulates the activities of the cell according to its sequence on each chromosome
Karyotype
is a photograph of an individual's chromosomes, arranged by size, shape, and number; can determine whether chromosomes are normal
Cytoplasm
includes all of the material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membrane, contains specialized apparatus to supply the chemical needs of the cell
Mitochondria
small sausage-shaped bodies that act like miniature power plants to produce energy by burning fuel in the presence of oxygen
Catabolism
complex foods (sugar and fat) are broken down into simpler substances and energy is released; provides the energy for cells to do the work of the body
Endoplasmic reticulum
is a network of canals within the cell, a cellular tunnel system that manufactures proteins for use in the cell
Anabolism
the process of building up complex materials, such as proteins, from simpler parts; small amino acids are fitted together to make larger proteins, supports the growth of new cells
Metabolism
anabolism and catabolism together; is the total of the chemical processes occurring in a cell
Muscle cell
long and slender and contains fibers that aid in contracting and relaxing
Epithelial cell
(a lining and skin cell) may be square and flat to provide protection
Nerve cell
may be long and have various fibrous extensions that aid in its job of carrying impulses
Fat cell
contains large, empty spaces for fat storage
Histologist
a scientist who specializes in the study of tissues
Epithelial tissue
located all over the body, forms the linings of internal organs, and the outer surface of the skin covering the body; also lines exocrine and endocrine glands
Epithelial
describes all tissue that covers the outside of the body and lines the inner surface of internal organs
Muscle tissue
voluntary, involuntary, cardiac
Connective tissue
adipose (fat), cartilage (elastic fibrous tissue attached to bones), bone, blood
Viscera
medical term for internal organs
Digestive system
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Urinary or excretory system
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Respiratory system
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs
Reproductive system
Female: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
Male: testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland
Endocrine system
thyroid gland, pituitary gland, sex glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands
Nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves
Circulatory system
heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland
Musculoskeletal system
muscles, bones, and joints
Skin and sense organs
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands; eye ear, nose, and tongue
Abdominal cavity
space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gall bladder and intestines; also called the abdomen
Cranial cavity
space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull; cranial means pertaining to the skull
Diaphragm
muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; the diaphragm moves up and down and aids in breathing
Dorsal (posterior)
pertaining to the back
Mediastinum
centrally located space between the lungs
Pelvic cavity
space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs; pelvic means pertaining to the pelvis, composed of the hip bones surrounding the pelvic cavity
Peritoneum
double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs
Pleura
double-layered membrane surrounding each lung
Pleural cavity
space between the pleural membranes
Spinal cavity
space within the spinal column and containing the spinal cord; also called the spinal canal
Thoracic cavity
space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs
Ventral (anterior)
pertaining to the front
Right hypochondriac region
right upper region below the cartilage of the ribs that extend over the abdomen
Left hypochondriac region
left upper region below the rib cartilage
Epigastric region
region above the stomach
Right lumbar region
right middle region near the waist
Left lumbar region
left middle region near the waist
Umbilical region
region of the navel or umbilicus
Right inguinal region
right lower region near the groin which is the area where the legs join the trunk of the body; this region is also known as the right iliac region because it lies near the ilium (upper portion of the hip bone)
Left inguinal region
left lower region near the groin; also called the left iliac region
Hypogastric region
middle lower region below the umbilical region
Right upper quadrant
contains the liver, gall bladder, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines
Left upper quadrant
contains the liver, stomach, spleen, pert of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines
Right lower quadrant
contains parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary, right fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter
Left lower quadrant
contains parts of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
Cervical division of the back
neck region, there are seven cervical vertebrae (C1 to C7)
Thoracic division of the back
chest region, there are 12 thoracic vertebrae (T1 to T12); each bone is joined to a rib
Lumbar division of the back
loin or flank region (between the ribs and the hipbone), there are 5 lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5)
Sacral division of the back
five bones (S1 to S5) are fused to form one bone, the sacrum
Coccygeal division of the back
the coccyx (tailbone) is a small bone composed of four fused pieces
Anterior (ventral)
front surface of the body
Deep
away from the surface
Distal
far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure
Frontal (coronal) plane
vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
Inferior (caudal)
below another structure; pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body
Lateral
pertaining to the side
Medial
pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body
Posterior (dorsal)
back surface of the body
Prone
lying on the belly (face down, palms down)
Proximal
near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
Sagittal (lateral) plane
lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into the right and left sides; the midsagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves
Superficial
on the surface
Superior (cephalic)
above another structure; pertaining to the head
Supine
lying on the back (face up, palms up)
Transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane
horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions