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Cell membrane

not only surrounds and protects the cell but also regulates what passes into and out of the cell


controls the operations of the cell, it directs cell division and determines the structure and function of the cell


are rod-like structures within the nucleus, all human body cells (except for the egg and sperm) contain 23 pairs of chromosomes (eggs and sperm have 23 unpaired chromosomes)


contain a chemical called DNA


regulates the activities of the cell according to its sequence on each chromosome


is a photograph of an individual's chromosomes, arranged by size, shape, and number; can determine whether chromosomes are normal


includes all of the material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membrane, contains specialized apparatus to supply the chemical needs of the cell


small sausage-shaped bodies that act like miniature power plants to produce energy by burning fuel in the presence of oxygen


complex foods (sugar and fat) are broken down into simpler substances and energy is released; provides the energy for cells to do the work of the body

Endoplasmic reticulum

is a network of canals within the cell, a cellular tunnel system that manufactures proteins for use in the cell


the process of building up complex materials, such as proteins, from simpler parts; small amino acids are fitted together to make larger proteins, supports the growth of new cells


anabolism and catabolism together; is the total of the chemical processes occurring in a cell

Muscle cell

long and slender and contains fibers that aid in contracting and relaxing

Epithelial cell

(a lining and skin cell) may be square and flat to provide protection

Nerve cell

may be long and have various fibrous extensions that aid in its job of carrying impulses

Fat cell

contains large, empty spaces for fat storage


a scientist who specializes in the study of tissues

Epithelial tissue

located all over the body, forms the linings of internal organs, and the outer surface of the skin covering the body; also lines exocrine and endocrine glands


describes all tissue that covers the outside of the body and lines the inner surface of internal organs

Muscle tissue

voluntary, involuntary, cardiac

Connective tissue

adipose (fat), cartilage (elastic fibrous tissue attached to bones), bone, blood


medical term for internal organs

Digestive system

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

Urinary or excretory system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

Respiratory system

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs

Reproductive system

Female: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
Male: testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland

Endocrine system

thyroid gland, pituitary gland, sex glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands

Nervous system

brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves

Circulatory system

heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland

Musculoskeletal system

muscles, bones, and joints

Skin and sense organs

skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands; eye ear, nose, and tongue

Abdominal cavity

space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gall bladder and intestines; also called the abdomen

Cranial cavity

space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull; cranial means pertaining to the skull


muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; the diaphragm moves up and down and aids in breathing

Dorsal (posterior)

pertaining to the back


centrally located space between the lungs

Pelvic cavity

space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs; pelvic means pertaining to the pelvis, composed of the hip bones surrounding the pelvic cavity


double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs


double-layered membrane surrounding each lung

Pleural cavity

space between the pleural membranes

Spinal cavity

space within the spinal column and containing the spinal cord; also called the spinal canal

Thoracic cavity

space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs

Ventral (anterior)

pertaining to the front

Right hypochondriac region

right upper region below the cartilage of the ribs that extend over the abdomen

Left hypochondriac region

left upper region below the rib cartilage

Epigastric region

region above the stomach

Right lumbar region

right middle region near the waist

Left lumbar region

left middle region near the waist

Umbilical region

region of the navel or umbilicus

Right inguinal region

right lower region near the groin which is the area where the legs join the trunk of the body; this region is also known as the right iliac region because it lies near the ilium (upper portion of the hip bone)

Left inguinal region

left lower region near the groin; also called the left iliac region

Hypogastric region

middle lower region below the umbilical region

Right upper quadrant

contains the liver, gall bladder, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines

Left upper quadrant

contains the liver, stomach, spleen, pert of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines

Right lower quadrant

contains parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary, right fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter

Left lower quadrant

contains parts of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter

Cervical division of the back

neck region, there are seven cervical vertebrae (C1 to C7)

Thoracic division of the back

chest region, there are 12 thoracic vertebrae (T1 to T12); each bone is joined to a rib

Lumbar division of the back

loin or flank region (between the ribs and the hipbone), there are 5 lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5)

Sacral division of the back

five bones (S1 to S5) are fused to form one bone, the sacrum

Coccygeal division of the back

the coccyx (tailbone) is a small bone composed of four fused pieces

Anterior (ventral)

front surface of the body


away from the surface


far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure

Frontal (coronal) plane

vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions

Inferior (caudal)

below another structure; pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body


pertaining to the side


pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body

Posterior (dorsal)

back surface of the body


lying on the belly (face down, palms down)


near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure

Sagittal (lateral) plane

lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into the right and left sides; the midsagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves


on the surface

Superior (cephalic)

above another structure; pertaining to the head


lying on the back (face up, palms up)

Transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane

horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions

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