56 terms

Sociology Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Describe Functionalism
-Macro theory

- Everything serves a function and works harmoniously together

- Naive and pretends everyone is happy

- Ex: Prostitution is functional because they feel men can satisfy their sexual needs which makes them happier and builds better families
Describe Conflict Theory
- Macro theory

- Relations of power (how it is presented, struggles for it, it is something you have or don't have)

- Exploitation, majority over minority,

- Capitalism is evil, marxist conflict theories, anything being commodified is conflict theory
Describe Symbolic Interactionism
- Micro theory

- Interested in personal interactions and meaning or attachment people derive from something

- What families mean to specific members etc
Describe Feminist Theory
- Based on equality and gender, intersectionality, race, physical ability

- Mainly about fight for equality
Describe Post Structuralism
- Discourse and how it shapes our ideas around something (what does it mean to be a good parent?)

- You measure up or fail according to that discourse, same with discourses of good vs bad student

- We all have access to power
Heterosexism
The idea that heterosexuality is the dominant and normal sexuality, making all other sexualities appear abnormal and deviant
Transphobia
Discrimination directed toward transexuals or transgendered individuals
Domestic Labour
The activities required to maintain a home and care for the people who live in it
Elder Abuse
Any form of mistreatment that results in harm or loss of old persons
Capitalism
An economic system grounded on the private ownership of the means of production
Bureaucracy
A rational organization designed to complete many routine tasks as efficiently as possible
Globalization
A worldwide process involving the production, distribution, and consumption of technological, political, economic, and socio-cultural goods and services
Global South
Poor countries in the southern hemisphere (previously referred to as third word)
Anthropecentrism
The view that human beings are separate from, and above, the rest of nature
Homophobia
An irrational fear or hatred of homosexuals that can lead to discrimination, harassment, and violence against them
Rule of Law
The requirement that no person is above the law and state power should not be applied arbitrarily
Intimate Femicide
The killing of women by their intimate male partners
Medicalization
The increasing influence of the medical profession in defining what is normal/healthy or abnormal/ill
Ableism
Discrimination against those who have disabilities on the basis of preconceived notions about their limitations
State/Welfare Capitalism
A political and economic system that combines free-market principles with varying degrees of social welfare programs
Mass Communication
the transmission of messages by a person or group through a device to a large audience
Colonizing
The political, economic, and cultural domination of countries in Asia, Africa, and the Americas by European countries starting in the 16th century
Transnational Corporation (TNC)
A large company based in one country with overseas operations in two or more other countries
Biphobia
The irrational fear or hatred for bisexuals
Moral Regulation
The constitution of certain behaviours as immoral and thereby requiring public regulation
Social Reproduction
The necessary activities that guarantee the day-to-day reproduction and survival of the population
McDonaldization
The notion that institutions are expected to function in ever more efficient ways, with a high degree of predictability and standardization
Ageism
A system of inequality based on age that privileges the young at the expense of the old
Socialism
An economic system in which raw materials and the means of production are collectively owned
Mass Media
Devices designed to communicate messages to a mass audience
Global North
Wealthy, industrialized countries in the northern hemisphere (previously referred to as first world)
Black Dog Syndrome
The idea that black dogs are evil, created by the notion that adopters often pass over black dogs at adoption
R v. R.D.S.
A 'reasonable person' would be aware of racism in Canada; judge must not make reference to race in Supreme Court; black judge is aware of racism in Canada between arrestor and offender
Efficiency (Ritzer)
First in the McDonaldization theory, efficiency refers to the most optimum method for getting from point A to point B, usually through predesigned processes with rules and regulations to guide workers and consumers in the most efficient manner.

This takes form in the University system with machine graded exams, test banks, online plagiarism detection, and speedy degrees.
Control (Ritzer)
Fourth element of McDonaldization that refers to the control exerted over those who enter an area of such, notably through the use of getting in line to get served and menus that have limited options. Workers may experience technological control to ensure consistent consumer experience, assuring that the employees tasks are limited and precisely executed.

Takes form in the University through students (who are much more controlled than staff) with little leeway for choosing courses (which are highly structured themselves). Kindergarten in this sense can be viewed as a bootcamp to learn authority and punctuality.
Carter v. Canada
...
R. v. Lavallee
Lavallee was a women in a violent common-law relationship where her partner continued to threaten her, and she ended up shooting him in the back of the head. Issues of self defence under the criminal code were raised and the controversy was that defenders death must be imminent, whereas this women saw it as a long term threat.
Predictability (Ritzer)
The third element of McDonaldization referring to the assurance that products and services will be the same over time and place, providing comfort and no surprises. Workers act predictably as if they had a script, providing the same consumer experience over time and place.

Takes form in Universities when thousands of tax dollars are spent on producing glossy brochures and websites that are all almost identical. Testing and assessment processes are predictable in terms of all courses having progress exams, final exams, term papers, etc.
Neoliberalism
Economic approach prioritizing private business, free and global trade, and unrestricted markets
Calculability (Ritzer)
Second element of McDonaldization that refers to the value of quantitative aspects of production and consumption. Quantity has become equivalent to quality, where workers are expected to do a lot of work quickly with low pay.

Takes form in the University through having standard terms, students are calculated based on numbers, grades (GPA) etc. Faculty are calculated based on research ("Publish or Perish") and prestige of their publications, which often puts quality of teaching in detriment (as researching is more focused on).
Body Work
Practice that is undertaken to modify or maintain some aspect of the body, often linked to appearance
SFL v. Saskatchewan
Unions join forces, launch legal action
The 5 Common Elements of Families
Dependancy/Intimacy
Sexuality
Protection
Material/Financial Support
Socialization
Dependency and Intimacy (5 Elements of Family)
- Attachment and interdependency
- Expectations of reciprocity
- Long-term commitments

Modern Family Examples:
- Cam and Mitch commit to raising a baby
- Gloria teaching Jay that family is all about supporting and loving each other no matter what ("to not spit on the face but blow at the back")
Sexuality (5 Elements of Family)
- Adult partners are expected to be long term and exclusive
- Regulate sexual behaviour among family members (no incest etc)

Modern Family Examples:
- Claire wants to prevent Hailey from being sexualized by not wearing a short skirt
- Claire also tries to regulate Hailey's sexuality by making sure her and her boyfriends door is open
Protection (5 Elements of Family)
- Safety from internal and external dangers (family violence still a problem.. Brother shooting sister with gun accidentally)

Modern Family Examples:
- Phil getting his son unstuck from the banister
- Jaw wants to protect Manny from embarrassing himself to people outside of the family (The 16 year old girl he has a crush on)
Material/Financial Support (5 Elements of Family)
- Basic support (food, clothing, shelter)
- Some families do and don't have the means to support kids all along the way

Modern Family Examples:
- Claire making food, baking cakes, doing laundry, etc
Socialization (5 Elements of Family)
- Families are one of the most important agents of socialization
- Families provide us with guidance, discipline, social rules, ethics and morals (don't murder, etc)
- Especially cultural reproduction

Modern Family Examples:
- Claire corrects her youngest daughter when she swears, teaching her discipline
- Mitch and Cam's fear of gay socialization of the baby with their gay painting on her wall and having too many friends with gay names (a common area of study with gay couples)
Three Debates on Critical Animal Studies
Animals as Persons vs Property
Animals as Having Culture (Animal Culture War)
Animals as Reflection of Human Society
Describe the debate of Animals as 'Persons vs Property'
- Ideas of justice, animals protection, animal abuse/violence
- commodification of and property status of animals, legal rights for animals, wildlife trade, endangered species, international laws and animal cruelty

- Under law, animals are categorized as property
- Changing such would provide rights and obligations
Describe the debate of Animals as 'Having Culture' (Animal Culture War)
- Increasing evidence that animals have cultures
- Analyzes the role of religions and social customs in human animal relations (domestic pets vs sacrificial ceremonies)

Examples:
- Dolphins use sea sponges to protect the sensitive organs on their faces as they swim
- North Atlantic Right Wales never repopulated because the elders were killed and only they knew where to else to go to eat
- White-Faced Capuchins will stick fingers into the others eyes to establish social closeness
Describe the debate of Animals as a 'Reflection of Human Society'
- Addressing inequalities and prejudice in human society
- Economically analyzes human-animals relations
- Intersectionality (oppressive institutions like racism and sexism and how they can't be examined separately from each other)
- Used to show that animal and human inequality issues are connected and similar
What is McDonaldization?
-"the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world"

- Expands on rationality/rationalization (Max Weber)
- Advantages? Wider range of goods and services available to a larger portion of people for cheaper
- Problems? Excessive use in areas that it ought not to be invading (like health care systems)
Describe the Functionalist view of Families
- Family is understood to be a major societal institution responsible for certain social functions (love, support, and sexual expression)

- Families function to socialize and discipline children based on the values and norms of their larger society

- Parsons divided parents into functional roles called the instrumental (men who engage in paid labour) and expressive role (women who tend to the emotional well-being of the family)

- Criticized for expecting these roles to be biologically inherent

- While benign in intent, it created a norm of nuclear families for which others to be considered deviant or dysfunctional
Describe the Symbolic Interactionist view of Families
- Looks at the behaviours in families and how they're influenced by context and thereby how symbolic meanings vary from one family to the next

- For example, they would look at the symbolic use of last names that lesbian mothers use in order to 'validate' their family legitimacy
- Using a hyphenated last name for their children which is easier when visiting emergency rooms or evading questions of which women is the mother
Describe the Post-Structuralist view of Families
- Dismantle prevailing discourses about families, questioning concepts like a 'good mother' or 'good father'

- Asserts that these categories are saturated in power relations, as notions of good mothers/fathers operate as normalizing discourses and thereby work to govern peoples behaviour

- For example, they would argue that families become targets of state intervention when pamphlets directed towards parents in the U.S. about education are covered in normalizing discourses aiming to teach parents how to make their children better students