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The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to..

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events

Alexandra is told that research supports the value of cosmetic surgery for boosting self-esteem. Belinda is told that the esteem-enhancing value of cosmetic surgery has been refuted by research. Both women would consider the findings to be common sense. This best illustrates the power of..

the hindsight bias

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates..


Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of..

a hypothesis

Replication involves..

repeating an earlier research study

Why is replication important to science?

repeated research with similar results increases confidence in the reliability of the original findings

To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client's current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?

the case study

The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it..

may be unrepresentative of what is generally true

A researcher interested in investigating the attitudes or opinions of a large sample of people is most likely to use which research method?


Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy." These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of..

wording effects

To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school's students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n)..


Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population?

random sampling

Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as..

naturalistic observation

Correlational research is most useful for purposes of..


A correlation coefficient is a measure of the..

direction and strength of the relationship between two variables

Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of..

hindsight bias

Which of the following is most likely to inhibit critical thinking?


Basing decisions or conclusions on observable evidence describes which of the following?

empirical approach

When you question wether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying..

critical thinking

What do scientists call an explanation that organizes observation and predicts further behaviors or events?


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