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Gravity
Terms in this set (81)
A. Area of Square
B. perimeter of square
A. side x side (or side squared)
B. 4 x side
A. Area of a rectangle
B. Perimeter of rectangle
A. length x. width
b. 2 x length + 2 x width
Area of a parallelogram
base x height
A. area of a triangle
B. Perimeter of triangle
A. 1/2 x base x height
B. side1 + side2 + side3
area of a trapezoid
1/2 (base1 +base2) x height
area of circle
(radius x radius) x 3.14
circumference of circle
(radius x 2) x. 3.14 or diameter x 3.14
Volume of a cube
edge x edge x edge
Volume of a rectangular solid
length x. width x. hieght
Volume of a square pyramid
1/3 x (base edge x base edge) x height
Volume of cone
1/3 x 3.14 x (radius x radius) x hieght
Pythagorean relationship
(axa)+ (bxb)= (c x c)
Mean Definition
...
Median Definition
the middle value of an odd number of ordered date, and halfway between the two middle values of an even number of ordered scores.
Whole numbers:
nonnegative numbers that are not expressed as fractions or decimal points.
Integers
an integer is a whole number or its opposite.
A. Adding integers with same sign
B Adding integers with different signs
A. (positive + positive= positive
negative + negative= negative
B. Step 1: subtract positive values of the numbers
Step 2: keep the sign of the number with the larger
value (example 8+-11= -3)
A. Subtracting integers with the same sign
A. Change the subtraction sign to addition and change the sign of the number being subtracted to its opposite. Then follow the rules of addition
Example:
10-12= 10+-12= -2
or
-5- -7= -5+7= 2
Multiplying and Dividing Integers
A. If the signs are the same then the answer will be positive
B. If the signs are different then the answer will be negative
Exponents
indicates the number of times a base is used as a factor to attain a product.
Zero Exponents
any nonzero number raised to the zero power equals 1
Perfect Squares
perfect squares (5 to the second power) are numbers that are second powers of other numbers. Perfect squares are always zero or positive because when you multiply a positive or negative by itself, the result is always positive.
Example:
Perfect Cubes
perfect cubes (5 to the third power) are numbers that are third powers of other numbers. Perfect cubes can be positive or negative
Example:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4 (all cubed)=
0, 1, 8, 27, 64, 125
Factors Definition
Factors are numbers that can be divided into a larger number without a remainder.
Example:
Factors of 24 = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24
Factors of 18= 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 18
Greatest Common Factors:
may be useful in simplifying fractions.
Examples
Simplify 16/20
Step 1: The GCF of 16 and 20 are 4.
Step 2: Divide numerator and denominator ( 16/4= 4)
( 20/4= 5)
Answer: 4/5
Multiples
Numbers that can be obtained by multiplying a number x by a positive integer. The common mulitple of two numbers is the multiple that each number shares.
Example: 5x7 = 35
So 35 is a multiple of 5 and of the number 7.
Prime Numbers:
a number that is only evenly divisible by itself and the number 1.
Example: 1, 2, 3, 7, 29.
Prime Factorization
The way to show all of the prime numbers that comprise a composite number.
Composite Numbers
Numbers that has more than 2 factors
Examples:
4, 6, 8.
Fractions
A fraction is a art of a whole number, represented with one number over another.
The number on top is the numerator and the number on the bottom is the denominator.
Simplifying Fractions
Step 1: Identify the Greatest Common Factor.
Step 2: Divide both the numerator and denominator by the number.
A. Adding fractions with the same denominator
B. Adding Fractions with different denominators
A. Add the numerator and keep the same denominator
B. Step 1: Find the least common denominator .
Examples: 3 and 5: LCD would be 15.
Step 2: Convert each fraction to its new form by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the appropriate factor to get the LCD.
Examples: (3x5= 15)
Step 3: Follow the directions for adding and subtracting the fractions with like denominators.
Example: 1/3 +2/5= 1(5)/3(5) + 2(3)/5(3)= 5/15+ 6/15: 11/15
A. Subtracting Fractions with the same denominator
B. Subtracting Fractions with different denominators
A. Subtract numerator and keep the same denominator
B. Step 1: Find the least common denominator .
Examples: 3 and 5: LCD would be 15.
Step 2: Convert each fraction to its new form by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the appropriate factor to get the LCD.
Examples: (3x5= 15)
Step 3: Follow the directions for adding and subtracting the fractions with like denominators.
Example: 1/3 +2/5= 1(5)/3(5) + 2(3)/5(3)= 5/15+ 6/15: 11/15
Multiplying Fractions
Simplify the fractions and multiply the numerator and the denominator.
Dividing Fractions
Step 1: Turn the first Fraction upside down
Step 2: Multiply the fractions
Step 3: simplify
Comparing Fractions
A. if the denominator is the same then compare numerators.
B. If the numerators are different then cross multiply the fractions.
Step 1. First numerator x2nd denominator = first place
Step 2. Second numerator X first denominator= 2nd place
Order of Operations
Please Excuse My dear Aunt Sally
(Parenthesis, exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction)
Commutative Property
An arithmetic operation is not affected by reversing the order of the numbers. However subtraction nor division is commutative.
Example
5+3= 3+5
Associative Property
If parentheses can be moved to group different numbers in an arithmetic problem without changing the result, then the operation is associative. Addition and multiplication are associative.
Example:
2+ (3+4)= (2+3)+4
2(ab)= (2a)b
Distributive Property
When a value is being multiplied by a sum or difference, multiply that value by each quantity within the parentheses. Then take the sum of difference to yield equivalent results.
Example:
(5(a+b)=5a+5b
5(100-6) =(5 x 100) - (5x6)
Additive Identity
Value that when added to a number does not change the number. For all integers, the additive identity is 0
Additive Inverse
An additive inverse of a number is a number that, when added to the number, gives you the additive identity. Basically what will give you 0.
Example:
The additive inverse of 3 is -3
Multiplicative Identity
This is the value that when multiplied by a number will not change that number. For all integers the muliplicative invers is 1.
Example:
5x1=5:
Multiplicative Inverse
The number that when added by the number gives you the multiplicative identity. (its simply the reciprocal)
Example:
5 x___=1
Answer is 1/5
1/5 x 5=1
Inequality signs
What is an angle composed of?
An endpoint, vertex, and two rays.
Acute Angle
Less than 90 degrees
Right angle
90 degrees
Obtuse Angle
More than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees
Straight angle
180 degrees
Complimentary Angles
Two angles are complementary if the sum of their measures is equal to 90 degrees.
Supplementary Angles
Two angles are supplementary if their sums equal 180 degrees
Adjacent Angles
adjacent angles share the same vortex, share a side, and do not overlap.
Angles of Intersecting Lines
When two lines intersect, two sets of nonadjacent angles called vertical angles are formed.
Vertical Angles:
vertical angles, formed when two lines intersect, have equal measures and are supplementary to adjacent angles.
Bisected Angles
Both angles and lines are said to be bisected when divided into two equal parts
Parallel Lines
Lines that ware always the same distance apart from each other. They never intersect.
Angles form from parallel lines being intersected.
Once parallel lines are intersected by a third line, vertical angles are formed.
Of these angles, 4 will be equal and acute and 4 will be equal and obtuse.
Any combination of an acute and an obtuse angle will be supplementary.
Polygon
2 dimensional object with straight lines that create a closed figure. Must contain a minimum of three interior angles.
Triangle
A polygon with three sides.
Quadrilateral
Polygon with four sides
Pentagon
Polygon with five sides
Hexagon
Polygon with six sides
Octagon
Polygon with eight sides
Trapezoid
four sided polygon with exactly one pair of parallel sides
Parallelogram
Quadrilateral with two pair of parallel sides.
Rhombus
four sided polygon with four equal length and two pairs of parallel sides. Also a type of parallelogram.
Rectangle
A four sides polygon that has four right angles and two pairs of parallel sides
Square
A four sided polygon with four right angle and 4 equal lines with two pairs of parallel sides. It is a form of a rectangle and a rhombus.
types of triangles
A. Equilateral: has three sides with the same length and 3 angles that measure 60 degrees
B. Isosceles: has atleast two sides of the same length and two angles with the same measurement
C. Scalene no sides with the same length
Right triangle
The largest side of the right triangle is called the hypotenuse.
Acute triangle
Obtuse Triangle
Pathogorean Theorem
Allows you to find what one side of a right triangle is so long as you know the other two sides.
Parts of Three Dimensional Figure
Face: is one of the polygons of the figures
Edges: where two or more polygons meet
Vertices/ Corners: where three or more polygons come together to form an endpoint.
Cube
Three dimensional figure in which each face is he shape of a square.
It has 6 faces, 12 edges and 8 corners.
Rectangular Prism
6 faces, 12 edges, 8 corners
Triangular Pyramid
4 faces, 6 edges, 4 corners
Rectangular Pyramid
Five faces, 4 edges, 4 corners
Cylinder
Sphere
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