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140 terms

APUSH Chapters 3-5

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Henry VIII aided the entrance of Protestant beliefs into England when he
broke ties with Roman Catholic Church in 1530s
King James I opposed the Separatists who wanted to break away entirely from the church of England because he
wanted to keep away religious opposition in order to stay in political power
Plymouth, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay are colonies associated with
Mayflower Compact, Fundamental Orders, General Court
Describe Mayflower Compact
simple agreement to crude government and rule of majority
Who was the leader who helped the Pilgrims survive
William Bradford
Economically, the colony of Pennsylvania
became profitable very quickly
All the middle colonies were
notable for fertile soil and democratic control
What have historians recently viewed the colonial period as
one of contact and adaptation between native populations
What section of the American colonies was there the greatest internal conflict
middle colonies
The picture of colonial america that is emerging from new scholarship is a society formed by
encounters with natives, European heritage, intertwining roots, American heritage
The New England Confederation
was made to bolster colonial defense
The Dominion of New England
included all NE colonies, made to streamline administration, bolster defense, included NY and NJ
As the head of Dominion of New England, Sir Edmund Andros was
able, conscientious, tactless, leader who restricted press
What were the results of England's Glorious Revolution
Andros controlled MA, MA regained charter, opposition to English went away, James II regained right to crown
What were the results of Sir Edmund Andros' rule
Power of town meetings curbed, navigation laws enforced, taxes levied, smuggling suppressed
What was New York
founded by Dutch, various companies
The Dutch colony of New Netherlands (later New York)
established for quick profit of fur trading
What was understood among the Puritans
purpose of government was to enforce God's laws
According to Anne Hutchinson, what was a dissenter in MA Bay
someone who doesn't bother to obey God or man, i.e. antinomianism
What were the punishments of the people who flouted the authority of the Puritan clergy in Massachusetts Bay
fines, floggings, banishment, death
As the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams
built 1st Baptist church, established complete freedom of religion
What weren't Roger Williams' beliefs
His beliefs were to break away from church, oppose taking Indian land, deny government to regulate religious matters, challenge MA charter
Rhode Island became known as a colony that
had individualist and independent attitudes
In the Massachusetts "Bible Commonwealth", clergyman
were barred from holding formal office
Puritan religious beliefs
drinking, eating, promiscuity, singing
Settlers of the Connecticut RIver colony developed a document known as the Fundamental Orders
which established a regime democratically controlled by "substantial" citizens
How was the city of New Haven settled
By Puritans, a community with a close government-religion alliance
How were the Puritans different than the other English voyagers to the New World
Puritans transplanted entire communities, usually farming, and re-created economies
After the Pequot War, describe the Puritan efforts to convert Indians to Christianity
feeble, compared to Spanish or French
What were the New England Indians' only hope for resisting the English?
intertribal unity against the English
What were the results of the King Philip's war
lasting defeat of New England Indians
During the early years of colonization in the New World
England paid little attention to its colonies
How are New York and Pennsylvania similar
Both had ethnically mixed populations
What did the New England Confederation regard Dutch Netherlands as
an enemy to be wiped out
What is one of the traits that made Quakers unpopular in England
refusal to do military service
Why was the physical growth of English New York slowed
monopolistic land policies of aristocrats
What happened when the English gained control over New Netherlands
autocratic spirit survived
After 1680 why was reliance on slave labor in colonial American rapidly increased
more wage in England reduced # of indentured servants, Planters feared landless freemen in colonies, British African company lost monopoly on slave trade, Americans cashed in on slave trade
What happened to many of the slaves that reached America
Originally captured by African coastal tribes
What is the population of the Chesapeake colonies throughout the first half of the 17th century notable for
scarcity of women
During the 17th century, indentured servitude solved the labor problem in many English colonies for what reasons
Indian workers died a lot, Africans cost a lot, some families formed slowly, procreated slowly
What did the "headright" system consist of
Giving right to get 50 acres of land to person paying for a laborer's passage to USA
By 1700 the most populous colony in English America was
Virginia
Colonists in both North and South established differences in all of the following areas except
common language and common allegiance to England
What do predestination, conversion, and antinomianism mean
predestined fate, sign of God's selected fate for you, "against the law"
In Calvinist thought the "conversion" was
receipt of God's free gift of saving grace
What were the "elect" referred to as by the Puritan doctrine
visible saints
Where does the historical significance of the pilgrims of Plymouth bay lie
it's where the pilgrims finally chose to land
Unlike Separatists, the puritans
remained in Church of England, sought to reform Church of England within, and eventually took a charter to establish themselves in Boston, MA
The Massachusetts Bay Colony initially enjoyed all of the following advantages except
It was not a democracy, but it was well equipped, large sacle, prosperous, and shared purpose
The Puritan doctrine accepted
covenant with God, an agreement to amke a model holy society
With the franchise in massachusetts extended to all adult males who belonged to Puritan congregations, the proportion of qualified voters (2/5) in the colony as compared to England was
larger
What was the leading industry in the American colonies
agriculture
By the mid-1700s, the number of poor people in the American colonies
remained small compared to those in England
On the eve of the American Revolution, social and economic mobility decreased
partly since some merchants made profit as military suppliers
During the colonial era what people created new societies out of diverse ethnic groups in America
English, Africans, Indians, French
What caused many Scots to migrate to Northern Ireland and thence to America
poor farmland, commercial farming, high rent increase, taxes to Anglican church, they were Protestant
How can the Scots-Irish be best described as
fiercely independent
One of the first tasks the Scots-Irish took as they established a new community was
make a church
What did the Puritan system of congregational church government lead to
democracy in political government
Thomas Jefferson once observed that "the best school of political liberty the world ever saw" was
New England town meeting
What were consequences of the Half-Way Covenant
Weakened distinction between elect and others, partial membership, more members, women became majority
What were Salem witchcraft trials
Result of Unsettled conditions
During the Salem witchcraft trials, the accused witches were
property-owning women
Compared with indentured servants, African American slaves were
a more manageable labor force
What happened as slavery spread to the south
gaps in social structure widened
What were most of the inhabitants of the colonial American South
landowning small farmers
Urban development in the colonial South
was slow to emerge
It was typical of colonial New England adults to
marry early and have several children
How can the New England family be best described as
a stable institution
What happened to the indentured servants who gained their freedom by the end of the 17th century
had to hire themselves for low wages to former masters
Bacon's Rebellion was supported mainly by
young men frustrated by inability to get land
What was reason for Bacon's Rebellion
Indian attacks on frontier settlements
What was result of Bacon's Rebellion
planters looked for less troublesome laborers
The majority of African slaves coming to the New World
were delivered to South America and West Indies
Southern colonies generally allowed married women to retain separate titles to their property because
southern men often died young
Why did the Puritans refuse to recognize a woman's separate property rights
worried rights would undercut unity of married persons
In the 17th century, what was true about colonial women
no vote, morally weaker, husband power not absolute, abusive husbands punished
What did the expansion of New England lead to
orderly growth
What wasn't true about new towns being established in New England
What was true was that land grant by legislature, meeting house, village green, schools for towns with 50 families or more
How can those Africans who were sold into slavery "the middle passage" be described as
gruesome ocean voyage
The physical and social conditions of slavery were harshest in
South Carolina
African American contributions to American culture included
Jazz, banjo, words like gullah, bongos
While slavery might have begun in America for economic reasons
discrimination molded slave system
The slave society that developed in North america was one of the few slave societies in history to
perpetuate itself by its own natural reproduction
17th century colonial tobacco growers usually responded to depressed prices for their crop by
growing more to increase volume of production
Who reaped the greatest benefit from the land policies of the "headright" system
merchant planters
For the labor in the colonies indentured servants received
passage to USA<,clothes, corn, sometimes land
English yeomen who agreed to exchange their labor temporarily in return for payment of their passage to an American colony were called
indentured servants
Over the course of the 17th century, most indentured servants
came to the Chesapeake colonies, grew harsher
What was a secondary economic activity of colonial America
Manufacturing
Although manufacturing in the colonies was of only secondary importance, they produced
rum, beaver hats, lumber, iron
The major manufacturing enterprise in colonial America in the 18th century was
lumbering
By the end of the 1700s, what was the percentage of people living in rural areas of colonial America
90 percent
With regard to governmental authority, the Scots-Irish colonies
had no love for British or other government
By 1775, who were the largest non-English ethnic group in colonial America
Africans
The population of the 13th colonies were
most diverse in world, mostly Anglo-Saxon
The ethnically diverse region of colonial America was ____ whereas _____ was the least ethnically diverse
middle colonies; New England
In contrast to the 17th century, by 1775, colonial America
was more stratified socially and had less social mobility
The Salem witch hunt in 1691
was opposed by the more responsible members of the clergy
As a result of poor soil, what conditions prevailed in New England
less diversity, frugality, hard work, diversification in agriculture and industry encouraged
The New England economy depended heavily on
fishing, shipbuilding, commerce
In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, those in New England
had a more diverse economy
The English justified taking land from the native inhabitants on the grounds that the Indians
wasted the earth
The combination of Calvinism, soil, and climate in New England resulted in the people there possessing which of the following qualities
Energy, stubbornness, self-reliance, resourcefulness
The special characteristics of New England's population led to the observation that these colonists "invented"
grandparents
The Great Awakening
undermined prestige of clergy, split colonial churches, founded colleges, 1st spontaneous mass movement of Americans
The new light preachers of the Great Awakening
delivered intensely emotional sermons
The time honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as
reserved for the aristocracy
In colonial America, education was most zealously promoted where
New England
Colonial schools and colleges placed their main emphasis on
religion
The first American college free from determined control was
University of Pennsylvania, founded by Ben Franklin
All of the following contributed to the lack of development of art and artists in early colonial America
Simplicity of life, lack of subjects, lack of patrons, lack of art schools
One feature of the American economy that strained the relationship between the colonies and Britain was the
desire for Americans to trade with countries other than Britain
When the British Parliament passed the Molasses Act in 1733 it intended the act to
inhibit colonial trade with French West Indies
American colonists sought trade with countries other than Great Britain
to make money to buy what they wanted in Britain
Transportation in colonial america was
slow
Colonial American taverns were what
cradle of democracy, hotbeds of agitation for Revolution, crystallized public opinion, had amusements
English officials tried to "establish" the Church of England in as many colonies as possible because
the church would be useful for Kingly authority
The most honored profession in early colonial society was
ministry
The least honored profession in early colonial society was
medicine
The riches created by the growing slave population in the American South
were not evenly distributed among Whites
When several colonial legislatures attempted to restrict or halt the importation of slaves, British authorities
vetoed such efforts
By the 18th century, the various colonial regions had distinct economic identities; the northern colonies relied on ____ the Chesapeake colonies relied on _____, and the southern colonies relied on_____.
fishing, lumber, commerce; tobacco; rice and indigo
Cultural contributions the Dutch made to America include
Easter eggs, Santa, Sauerkraut, skating
Pennsylvania was
the best advertised
Culture in colonial America
was generally ignored and unappreciated
The person most often called the first civilized American was
Benjamin Franklin
What were the achievements of Benjamin Franklin
lightning rod, bifocal glasses, stove, Poor Richard's Almanack
The jury's decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because
it pointed the way to open public discussion
One political principle that colonial Americans came to cherish above most others was
self-taxation through representation
By 1775 the ____ churches were the only 2 established churches in colonial America
Congregational and Anglican
By 1775, most governors of American colonies were
appointed by king
Congregationalist, Anglican, Presbyterian
frontier, New England, South
As the Revolution approached Presbyterian and Congregational ministers in general
supported Revolutionary cause
By the early 18th century, religion in colonial America was
less fervid, less strong
What were the talents of Phillis Wheatley, Benjamin franklin, and Jonathan Edwards
slave girl poet, scientist, minister
Which was considered to be in a naval store
Tar, pitch, rosin, turpentine
One of the surest avenues to speedy wealth in the American colonies
commercial venture
The triangular trade of the colonial American hipping industry
rum for African slaves; slaves for sugar in West Indies; sugar for rum in New England