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Henry VIII aided the entrance of Protestant beliefs into England when he

broke ties with Roman Catholic Church in 1530s

King James I opposed the Separatists who wanted to break away entirely from the church of England because he

wanted to keep away religious opposition in order to stay in political power

Plymouth, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay are colonies associated with

Mayflower Compact, Fundamental Orders, General Court

Describe Mayflower Compact

simple agreement to crude government and rule of majority

Who was the leader who helped the Pilgrims survive

William Bradford

Economically, the colony of Pennsylvania

became profitable very quickly

All the middle colonies were

notable for fertile soil and democratic control

What have historians recently viewed the colonial period as

one of contact and adaptation between native populations

What section of the American colonies was there the greatest internal conflict

middle colonies

The picture of colonial america that is emerging from new scholarship is a society formed by

encounters with natives, European heritage, intertwining roots, American heritage

The New England Confederation

was made to bolster colonial defense

The Dominion of New England

included all NE colonies, made to streamline administration, bolster defense, included NY and NJ

As the head of Dominion of New England, Sir Edmund Andros was

able, conscientious, tactless, leader who restricted press

What were the results of England's Glorious Revolution

Andros controlled MA, MA regained charter, opposition to English went away, James II regained right to crown

What were the results of Sir Edmund Andros' rule

Power of town meetings curbed, navigation laws enforced, taxes levied, smuggling suppressed

What was New York

founded by Dutch, various companies

The Dutch colony of New Netherlands (later New York)

established for quick profit of fur trading

What was understood among the Puritans

purpose of government was to enforce God's laws

According to Anne Hutchinson, what was a dissenter in MA Bay

someone who doesn't bother to obey God or man, i.e. antinomianism

What were the punishments of the people who flouted the authority of the Puritan clergy in Massachusetts Bay

fines, floggings, banishment, death

As the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams

built 1st Baptist church, established complete freedom of religion

What weren't Roger Williams' beliefs

His beliefs were to break away from church, oppose taking Indian land, deny government to regulate religious matters, challenge MA charter

Rhode Island became known as a colony that

had individualist and independent attitudes

In the Massachusetts "Bible Commonwealth", clergyman

were barred from holding formal office

Puritan religious beliefs

drinking, eating, promiscuity, singing

Settlers of the Connecticut RIver colony developed a document known as the Fundamental Orders

which established a regime democratically controlled by "substantial" citizens

How was the city of New Haven settled

By Puritans, a community with a close government-religion alliance

How were the Puritans different than the other English voyagers to the New World

Puritans transplanted entire communities, usually farming, and re-created economies

After the Pequot War, describe the Puritan efforts to convert Indians to Christianity

feeble, compared to Spanish or French

What were the New England Indians' only hope for resisting the English?

intertribal unity against the English

What were the results of the King Philip's war

lasting defeat of New England Indians

During the early years of colonization in the New World

England paid little attention to its colonies

How are New York and Pennsylvania similar

Both had ethnically mixed populations

What did the New England Confederation regard Dutch Netherlands as

an enemy to be wiped out

What is one of the traits that made Quakers unpopular in England

refusal to do military service

Why was the physical growth of English New York slowed

monopolistic land policies of aristocrats

What happened when the English gained control over New Netherlands

autocratic spirit survived

After 1680 why was reliance on slave labor in colonial American rapidly increased

more wage in England reduced # of indentured servants, Planters feared landless freemen in colonies, British African company lost monopoly on slave trade, Americans cashed in on slave trade

What happened to many of the slaves that reached America

Originally captured by African coastal tribes

What is the population of the Chesapeake colonies throughout the first half of the 17th century notable for

scarcity of women

During the 17th century, indentured servitude solved the labor problem in many English colonies for what reasons

Indian workers died a lot, Africans cost a lot, some families formed slowly, procreated slowly

What did the "headright" system consist of

Giving right to get 50 acres of land to person paying for a laborer's passage to USA

By 1700 the most populous colony in English America was


Colonists in both North and South established differences in all of the following areas except

common language and common allegiance to England

What do predestination, conversion, and antinomianism mean

predestined fate, sign of God's selected fate for you, "against the law"

In Calvinist thought the "conversion" was

receipt of God's free gift of saving grace

What were the "elect" referred to as by the Puritan doctrine

visible saints

Where does the historical significance of the pilgrims of Plymouth bay lie

it's where the pilgrims finally chose to land

Unlike Separatists, the puritans

remained in Church of England, sought to reform Church of England within, and eventually took a charter to establish themselves in Boston, MA

The Massachusetts Bay Colony initially enjoyed all of the following advantages except

It was not a democracy, but it was well equipped, large sacle, prosperous, and shared purpose

The Puritan doctrine accepted

covenant with God, an agreement to amke a model holy society

With the franchise in massachusetts extended to all adult males who belonged to Puritan congregations, the proportion of qualified voters (2/5) in the colony as compared to England was


What was the leading industry in the American colonies


By the mid-1700s, the number of poor people in the American colonies

remained small compared to those in England

On the eve of the American Revolution, social and economic mobility decreased

partly since some merchants made profit as military suppliers

During the colonial era what people created new societies out of diverse ethnic groups in America

English, Africans, Indians, French

What caused many Scots to migrate to Northern Ireland and thence to America

poor farmland, commercial farming, high rent increase, taxes to Anglican church, they were Protestant

How can the Scots-Irish be best described as

fiercely independent

One of the first tasks the Scots-Irish took as they established a new community was

make a church

What did the Puritan system of congregational church government lead to

democracy in political government

Thomas Jefferson once observed that "the best school of political liberty the world ever saw" was

New England town meeting

What were consequences of the Half-Way Covenant

Weakened distinction between elect and others, partial membership, more members, women became majority

What were Salem witchcraft trials

Result of Unsettled conditions

During the Salem witchcraft trials, the accused witches were

property-owning women

Compared with indentured servants, African American slaves were

a more manageable labor force

What happened as slavery spread to the south

gaps in social structure widened

What were most of the inhabitants of the colonial American South

landowning small farmers

Urban development in the colonial South

was slow to emerge

It was typical of colonial New England adults to

marry early and have several children

How can the New England family be best described as

a stable institution

What happened to the indentured servants who gained their freedom by the end of the 17th century

had to hire themselves for low wages to former masters

Bacon's Rebellion was supported mainly by

young men frustrated by inability to get land

What was reason for Bacon's Rebellion

Indian attacks on frontier settlements

What was result of Bacon's Rebellion

planters looked for less troublesome laborers

The majority of African slaves coming to the New World

were delivered to South America and West Indies

Southern colonies generally allowed married women to retain separate titles to their property because

southern men often died young

Why did the Puritans refuse to recognize a woman's separate property rights

worried rights would undercut unity of married persons

In the 17th century, what was true about colonial women

no vote, morally weaker, husband power not absolute, abusive husbands punished

What did the expansion of New England lead to

orderly growth

What wasn't true about new towns being established in New England

What was true was that land grant by legislature, meeting house, village green, schools for towns with 50 families or more

How can those Africans who were sold into slavery "the middle passage" be described as

gruesome ocean voyage

The physical and social conditions of slavery were harshest in

South Carolina

African American contributions to American culture included

Jazz, banjo, words like gullah, bongos

While slavery might have begun in America for economic reasons

discrimination molded slave system

The slave society that developed in North america was one of the few slave societies in history to

perpetuate itself by its own natural reproduction

17th century colonial tobacco growers usually responded to depressed prices for their crop by

growing more to increase volume of production

Who reaped the greatest benefit from the land policies of the "headright" system

merchant planters

For the labor in the colonies indentured servants received

passage to USA<,clothes, corn, sometimes land

English yeomen who agreed to exchange their labor temporarily in return for payment of their passage to an American colony were called

indentured servants

Over the course of the 17th century, most indentured servants

came to the Chesapeake colonies, grew harsher

What was a secondary economic activity of colonial America


Although manufacturing in the colonies was of only secondary importance, they produced

rum, beaver hats, lumber, iron

The major manufacturing enterprise in colonial America in the 18th century was


By the end of the 1700s, what was the percentage of people living in rural areas of colonial America

90 percent

With regard to governmental authority, the Scots-Irish colonies

had no love for British or other government

By 1775, who were the largest non-English ethnic group in colonial America


The population of the 13th colonies were

most diverse in world, mostly Anglo-Saxon

The ethnically diverse region of colonial America was ____ whereas _____ was the least ethnically diverse

middle colonies; New England

In contrast to the 17th century, by 1775, colonial America

was more stratified socially and had less social mobility

The Salem witch hunt in 1691

was opposed by the more responsible members of the clergy

As a result of poor soil, what conditions prevailed in New England

less diversity, frugality, hard work, diversification in agriculture and industry encouraged

The New England economy depended heavily on

fishing, shipbuilding, commerce

In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, those in New England

had a more diverse economy

The English justified taking land from the native inhabitants on the grounds that the Indians

wasted the earth

The combination of Calvinism, soil, and climate in New England resulted in the people there possessing which of the following qualities

Energy, stubbornness, self-reliance, resourcefulness

The special characteristics of New England's population led to the observation that these colonists "invented"


The Great Awakening

undermined prestige of clergy, split colonial churches, founded colleges, 1st spontaneous mass movement of Americans

The new light preachers of the Great Awakening

delivered intensely emotional sermons

The time honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as

reserved for the aristocracy

In colonial America, education was most zealously promoted where

New England

Colonial schools and colleges placed their main emphasis on


The first American college free from determined control was

University of Pennsylvania, founded by Ben Franklin

All of the following contributed to the lack of development of art and artists in early colonial America

Simplicity of life, lack of subjects, lack of patrons, lack of art schools

One feature of the American economy that strained the relationship between the colonies and Britain was the

desire for Americans to trade with countries other than Britain

When the British Parliament passed the Molasses Act in 1733 it intended the act to

inhibit colonial trade with French West Indies

American colonists sought trade with countries other than Great Britain

to make money to buy what they wanted in Britain

Transportation in colonial america was


Colonial American taverns were what

cradle of democracy, hotbeds of agitation for Revolution, crystallized public opinion, had amusements

English officials tried to "establish" the Church of England in as many colonies as possible because

the church would be useful for Kingly authority

The most honored profession in early colonial society was


The least honored profession in early colonial society was


The riches created by the growing slave population in the American South

were not evenly distributed among Whites

When several colonial legislatures attempted to restrict or halt the importation of slaves, British authorities

vetoed such efforts

By the 18th century, the various colonial regions had distinct economic identities; the northern colonies relied on ____ the Chesapeake colonies relied on _____, and the southern colonies relied on_____.

fishing, lumber, commerce; tobacco; rice and indigo

Cultural contributions the Dutch made to America include

Easter eggs, Santa, Sauerkraut, skating

Pennsylvania was

the best advertised

Culture in colonial America

was generally ignored and unappreciated

The person most often called the first civilized American was

Benjamin Franklin

What were the achievements of Benjamin Franklin

lightning rod, bifocal glasses, stove, Poor Richard's Almanack

The jury's decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because

it pointed the way to open public discussion

One political principle that colonial Americans came to cherish above most others was

self-taxation through representation

By 1775 the ____ churches were the only 2 established churches in colonial America

Congregational and Anglican

By 1775, most governors of American colonies were

appointed by king

Congregationalist, Anglican, Presbyterian

frontier, New England, South

As the Revolution approached Presbyterian and Congregational ministers in general

supported Revolutionary cause

By the early 18th century, religion in colonial America was

less fervid, less strong

What were the talents of Phillis Wheatley, Benjamin franklin, and Jonathan Edwards

slave girl poet, scientist, minister

Which was considered to be in a naval store

Tar, pitch, rosin, turpentine

One of the surest avenues to speedy wealth in the American colonies

commercial venture

The triangular trade of the colonial American hipping industry

rum for African slaves; slaves for sugar in West Indies; sugar for rum in New England

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