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83 terms

AP Biology: Chapter 35 (Plant Structure, Growth, & Development)

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Plasticity
An organism's ability to alter itself in response to local environmental conditions
Morphology
external form
Tissue
group of cells with a common function, structure, or both
Organ
consists of several types of tissues that carry out a particular function
Root System
All of a plant's roots that anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food.
Shoot System
The aerial portion of a plant body, consisting of stems, leaves, and (in angiosperms) flowers.
Roots
An organ that anchors a vascular plant, absorbs nutrients & water, & often stores organic nutrients
Taproot System
consists of one main vertical root that develops from an embryonic root
Lateral Roots
A root that arises from the outermost layer of the pericycle of an established root.
Fibrous Root System
a mat of generally thin roots spreading out below the soil surface, with no root standing out as the main one
Adventitious
Describes any plant part that grows in an unusual location
Root Hairs
A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.
Stem
A vascular plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes that support the leaves and reproductive structures.
Nodes
the points at which leaves are attached
Internodes
the stem segments between nodes
Axillary Bud
a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, commonly called a branch
Terminal Bud
Embryonic tissue at the tip of a shoot, made up of developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes.
Apical Dominance
Concentration of growth at the tip of a plant shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.
Leaf
the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants
Blade
A leaf like structure of a seaweed that provides most of the surface area for photosynthesis (the flattened portion of a typical leaf)
Petiole
The stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem.
Veins
A vascular bundle in a leaf
Tissue System
One or more tissues organized into a functional unit connecting the organs of a plant
Derminal Tissue System
The outer protective covering of plants
Epidermis
The dermal tissue system of nonwoody plants, usually consisting of a single layer of tightly packed cells.
Periderm
The protective coat that replaces the epidermis in plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium.
Cuticle
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
Xylem
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.
Phloem
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
Stele
The vascular tissue of a stem or root.
Bundle Sheath
A protective covering around a leaf vein, consisting of one or more cell layers, usually parenchyma.
Vascular Tissue System
A system formed by xylem and phloem throughout a vascular plant, serving as a transport system for water and nutrients, respectively.
Vascular Cylinder
The central cylinder of vascular tissue in a root.
Vascular Bundle
A strand of vascular tissues (both xylem and phloem) in a stem or leaf.
Ground Tissue System
Plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of functions, such as storage, photosynthesis, and support.
Pith
ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue in a stem; in many monocot roots, parenchyma cells that form the central core of the vascular cylinder
Cortex
Ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or dicot stem.
Protoplast
The contents of a plant cell exclusive of the cell wall.
Sclereid
A short, irregular sclerenchyma cell in nutshells and seed coats and scattered through the parenchyma of some plants.
Fibers
A lignified cell type that reinforces the xylem of angiosperms and functions in mechanical support; a slender, tapered sclerenchyma cell that usually occurs in bundles.
Tracheid
A long, tapered water-conducting cell that is dead at maturity and is found in the xylem of all vascular plants.
Vessels
Continuous water-conducting micropipes found in most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants.
Parenchyma Cells
A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differntiated cell type.
Collenchyma Cells
A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plants without restraining growth.
Sclerenchyma Cells
A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity.
Vessel Elements
A short, wide, water conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants. Dead at maturity, vessel elements are aligned end to form micropipes called vessels.
Sieve Plates
An end wall in a sieve-tube member, which facilitates the flow of phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubes.
Sieve Tube Members
A living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms. They form chains called sieve tubes.
Companion Cells
surround seive tube element, regulating the materials that are exchanged
Indeterminate Growth
A type of growth characteristic of plants, in which the organism continues to grow as long as it lives.
Determinate Growth
A type of growth characteristic of most animals and some plant organs, in which growth stops after a certain size is reached.
Annuals
A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season.
Biennials
A flowering plant that requires two years to complete its life cycle.
Perennials
plants that live for more than two years
Meristems
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.
Apical Meristems
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
Primary Growth
Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
Herbaceous
characteristic of a nonwoody herb or plant part
Secondary Growth
Growth produced by lateral meristems, which thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.
Lateral Meristems
A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems.
Vascular Cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.
Cork Cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells.
Initals
Cells that remain within an apical meristem as sources of new cells
Derivatives
New cells that are displaced from an apical meristem and continue to divide until the cells they produce become specialized.
Root Cap
A cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem.
Primary Plant Body
The tissues produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
Endodermis
The innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder.
Pericycle
The outermost layer of the vascular cylinder of a root, where lateral roots originate.
Leaf Primordia
Fingerlike projections along the flanks of a shoot apical meristem, from which leaves arise.
Stomata
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
Guard Cells
The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.
Mesophyll
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
Palisade Mesophyll
One or more layers of elongated photosynthetic cells on the upper part of a leaf; also called palisade parenchyma.
Spongy Mesophyll
Loosely arranged photosynthetic cells located below the palisade mesophyll cells in a leaf.
Leaf Traces
A small vascular bundle that extends from the vascular tissue of the stem through the petiole and into a leaf.
Bundle Sheath
A protective covering around a leaf vein, consisting of one or more cell layers, usually parenchyma.
Secondary Plant Growth
The tissues produced bythe vascular cambium & cork cambium, which thickens the stems & roots of woody plants
Fusiform Initials
Cells within the vascular cambrium that produce elongated cells such as trocheids, vessel elements, fibers, and sieve-tube members.
Ray Initials
Cells within the vascular cambrium that produce xylem and phloem rays, radial files that consist mostly of parenchyma cells.
Heartwood
Older layers of secondary xylem, closer to the center of a stem or root, that no longer transport xylem sap.
Sapwood
Outer layers of secondary xylem that still transport xylem sap.
Lenticels
Small raised areas in the bark of stems and roots that enable gas exchange between living cells and the outside air.
Bark
All tissues external to the vascular cambium, consisting mainly of the secondary phloem and layers of periderm.