68 terms

BJU Science 6 Chapter 1

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Why is it difficult to be certain about the earth's interior and it's movements
man has limited ability to observe the earth's interior and it's movements
normal fault
as rocks move apart a section of the rock may fall between the separating rocks
reverse fault
occurs where rocks push together until they force a section of rock upward
strike-strip fault
occurs as rocks move horizontal
p wave
fastest-moving wave which travels in a straight path by a push and pull motion.
s wave
moves more slowly in an up and down zigzagging motion
love wave
fastest moving land wave which moves back and worth in a zigzagging position
Rayleigh wave
land wave which moves along the ground in a rolling motion, similar to ocean waves
seismograph
a machine used to detect, time, and measure the movements of the earth
l wave (land wave)
the slowest and most destructive waves
lithosphere
the crust and upper area of the mantle which consist of plates
plates
large pieces of lithosphere which float on partly melted rock in the earth's mantle
theory of plate tectonics
idea that the earth's crust is made up of moving plates
plate boundaries
places where the plates meet
Pangaea
a large landmass that some scientist think may have existed at one time
3 ways plates can move against each other
collide, separate, and slide
causes an earthquake
the sudden shifting of rocks along plate boundaries
New Madrid earthquake
This earthquake did not happen near a plate boundary
fault
a break in the earth's surface along which rock can move
earthquake
the released energy that causes vibrations in the earth's surface
3 kinds of faults
reverse, normal, stike-slip
what determines the kind of fault?
how the rocks move against each other
what causes a reverse fault?
rocks pushing together until a section of rock moves upward
What landforms may have been formed by reverse faults?
deep ocean trenches and some mountains
Himalaya Mountains and Marianas Trench
examples of reverse faults
What causes a normal fault?
rocks moving apart
Great Rift Valley in Africa
a normal fault
What causes a strike-slip fault?
rocks moving horizontally past each other
San Andreas Fault
famous fault in California where many earthquakes occur
focus
the beginning point of an earthquake
seismic waves
the vibrations of an earthquake
epicenter
the point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus
seismologist
scientist who studies movements of the earth
Mercalli Scale
measures the earth's destruction by an earthquake using man's observations; used to determine how to construct buildings
Richter Scale
measures the strength of seismic waves of an earthquake; more acurate
tsunamis
a huge wave resulting from an earthquake, landslide, or volcano that occurs under or near the ocean
10 times
magnitude 4 earthquake compared to a magnitude 3 earthquake
100 times
magnitude 4 earthquake compared to a magnitude 2 earthquake
100,000 times
magnitude 8 earthquake compared to a magnitude 3 earthquake
magma
molten rock
volcanologists
scientist who study volcanos
magma chambers
pockets of molten rock deep in the Earth's lithosphere
lava
magma becomes this when it breaks the surface
crater
the bowl shape at the top of a main vent
flank eruption
an eruption that flows through the side vents
ash
clouds filled with jagged bits of crushed rock
submarine eruption
underwater eruptions
hot spots
places where a pool of intensely hot magma rises toward the surface
3 ways to classify volcanos
by shape, how often they erupt, and type of eruption
shield volcanoes
-not cone-shaped; has gradually sloping sides and look like upside down saucers
- formed by a continual flow of lava
-some of the largest volcanoes
-usually not explosive
cinder cone volcano
-resembles a hill rather than a mountain
- bowl-like crater at the top and contains one main vent
- explosive
-showers ash and lava
cinder
ash and lava
composite cone volcano
-large, symmetrical, cone-shaped volcano
- steep sides
- made of hardened lava and tephra
- explosive eruptions
tephra
mixture of cinder, ash, and rock
active volcano
volcano that has erupted at some point during a recorded time period
dormant volcano
volcano that erupted in the distant past but are currently inactive and not expected to erupt again
extinct volcano
volcano that has no recorded eruption
Hawaiian eruption
volcano with runny lava and little or no cinder ash
strombolian eruption
volcano that produces a fountain of lava that runs down its sides
vulcanian eruption
volcano that is violent and causes a loud explosion that sends lava, ash, cinders and gas into the air
pyroclastic flow
avalanche of red-hot dust and gases which race down the side of the volcano
Plinian eruption
the most powerful eruption
vog
gases released from a volcano
debris flow
the surge of mud and rock fragments when part of a mountain collapses
igneous rock
rock formed when magma and lava cool
hot spring
a heated pool of ground water
geyser
a hot spring that blows steam and hot water into the air periodically
mud pot
a hot spring that contains more mud than water

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