Landforms Final Exam
Terms in this set (32)
This disturbed hill slope is in the midst of compensating adjustment.
The failure of saturated slopes caused a landslide into the river and set a disequilibrium condition.
As a consequence, the new dam of material threw the stream into disequilibrium between its flow and sediment load.
-Denudation is a general term referring to all processes that cause reduction or rearrangement of landforms.
-The principal denudation processes affecting surface materials include weathering, mass movement, erosion, transportation, and deposition.
downslope movement of coherent block of earth material
is sliding along a curved slip plane producing slump blocks
rocks fall from vertical face
Downslope movement of unconsolidated material in which particles move about and mix within the mass
the sinking of a mass of earth material below the level of surrounding material
Geologic surfaces of weakness in the slope material - bedding, foliation, fractures-lead to the development
four basic classes of mass movement and their speeds?
fall, slide, flow and creep
Each involves the pull of gravity working on a mass until the critical shearing strength is reduced to the point that the mass falls, slides, flows, or creeps downward.
Name and describe the type of mudflow associated with a volcanic eruption.
Human induced mass wasting.
Large open-pit strip mines-such as the Bingham Copper Mine west of Salt Lake City, the Berkeley Pit in Butte, Montana, and the extensive strip mining for coal in the East and West, are examples of human-induced mass movements, generally called scarification.
Chemical weathering of limestone
creates a specific landscape of pitted, bumpy surface topography, poor surface drainage, well-developed underground solution channels, and labyrinths of underworld caverns.
-Sliding occurs on a planar surface or on a slip plane
-Slopes formed by hard rocks typically fail by translational slides
-Soil slips occur above bedrock and fail by translational slides
-Slumps or translational slides developing months or years after slope is saturated
-Sliding occurs along a curved slip pl
-Slopes formed by weak rocks such as shale or have thick soil deposits typically fail by rotational slides
Role of Vegetation
In subhumid to humid environments, vegetation is thick and abundant
Landslide activity includes deep complex landslides, earthflows, and soil creep.
Vegetation influences slope stability by:
Providing a cover that cushions the impact of rain falling on slopes and retards erosion on surface
Vegetation has root systems that tend to provide an apparent cohesion which increases resistance to landslides.
Vegetation adds weight to the slope increasing the driving forces
Role of time
Physical and chemical weathering can weaken slope materials decreasing resisting forces
Role of Water
Water can affect slope stability by:
Shallow soil slips developing during rainstorms, after slopes become saturated.
Slumps or translational slides developing months or years after slope is saturated
Water eroding the base or toe of a slope decreasing slope stability
Karst topography features sinkholes or sinks formed by groundwater slowly dissolving the bedrock
often accompanied by subsidence or outright collapse
Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Separates the Mediterranean Basin from the Sahara Desert which forms a boundary and almost prevents communication between the two regions
Hindu Kush Mountains
The Hindu Kush Mountains of Afghanistan are linked with other mountain ranges that frame South Asia
The Zagros Mountains on the western side of Iran isolate the country from the rest of the Middle East
The Elburz Mountains cut off easy access to the Caspian Sea for Iran
The Taurus Mountains separate Turkey from the rest of the Middle East
However, goods, people, and ideas have still been able to spread because of water
The largest hot desert in the world
Sahara means "desert" in Arabic
Temperatures can rise as high as 136.4 degrees F in the summer
Temperatures can also fall below freezing at night in the winter
Only 20% is sand, the rest is made up of mountains, rock formations, and gravelly plains
The Arabian Peninsula consists of the Rub-al-Khali, which is the most famous desert in the region, thus that area also has a desert climate
Separates the Arabian Peninsula and the continent of Africa
Covers a rift valley created by the movement of the Arabian plate
A landlocked salt lake
The Dead Sea is so salty that only bacteria can live in the water
1,349 feet below sea level - lowest place on the exposed crust of the earth
Provides water to the region
Flows from the mountains in Lebanon into the Dead Sea
Natural boundary between Israel and Jordan
Tigris and Euphrates
Two of the most important rivers in the Middle East
Supported several ancient river valley civilizations in a larger area known as the Fertile Crescent
Flow through parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq
The valleys are fertile, well watered, and great for agriculture
Flow almost parallel to each other for hundreds of miles
Join at the Shatt al Arab and then flow into the Persian Gulf
A common assumption is that most deserts are covered by sand. Instead, desert pavements predominate across most sub-tropical arid landscapes; only about 10% of desert areas are covered with sand. Sand grains generally are deposited as transient ridges or hills called dunes. A dune is a wind-sculpted accumulation of sand (See next slide).
An extensive area of dunes, such as that found in North Africa, is characteristic of an erg desert, which means sand sea.
Most desert landscapes are not covered with sand but are desert pavements, which are so common that many provincial names have been used for them-for example, "gibber plain" in Australia, "gobi" in China, and in Africa, "lag gravels" or "serir" or reg desert.
The next slide features a reg desert located in California's Mojave Desert.
On a larger scale, deflation and abrasion are capable of streamlining rock structures that are aligned parallel to the most effective wind direction, leaving behind distinctive, elongated ridges called yardangs. These can range from meters to kilometers in length and up to many meters in height.
Starship- No Way Out
the song- No way out
the album- nuclear furniture
the group- Starship
their city- San Fran, CA
male vocalist- mickey thomas
female vocalist- grace slick