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Chapter 55- Ecosystem Ecology
Terms in this set (26)
community plus all of it's abiotic interactions associated with the community.
First law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed
Energy enters an ecosystem as solar radiation and is conserved and then the lost from the organism as heat.
Second law of thermodynamics
states every exchange of energy increase the entropy of the universe
T/F: In an ecosystem energy conversions are efficient and no energy is lost as heat.
not efficient and energy is lost as heat
Law of conservation of mass
matter cannot be created or destroyed.
T/F: Autotrophs build molecules themselves with photosynthesis and Heterotrophs depend on the biosynthetic output of other organisms.
converting inorganic energy into organic energy typically happens via photosynthesis
Rate of Primary Production
amount of energy fixed over a given period of time
Gross primary productivity is higher than net primary productivity. The difference between the two is:
A) the amount of energy producers burn when they metabolize.
B) typically the ratio between the biomass of producers and the biomass of consumers.
C) an important measure of ecosystem productivity.
D) energy that is lost into outer space due to metabolic inefficiencies.
E) energy that is stored in plant tissues.
Which of the following is not true about primary production in an aquatic ecosystem?
A) Both light and nutrients control the primary production.
B) Marine production is most often limited by nitrogen and phosphorous.
C) Depth of the light penetrating the photic zone affects primary production.
D) Upwelling of nutrient-rich waters in parts of the oceans contribute to regions of high primary production.
E) None of the above.
Which of the following is not true about primary production in an terrestrial ecosystem?
A) Temperature and moisture affect the primary production on a large scale.
B) Primary production decreases with moisture.
C) Soil nutrients are more often the limiting factors
D) Nitrogen is the most common limiting nutrient and phosphorous can be limiting nutrients
it actually increases with moisture
the water transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape
T/F: Trophic energy transfer are on average 20% efficient.
Why are big, predatory animals rare? Most big, predatory animals are tertiary consumers, which implies that:
A) typically, they are highly territorial.
B) It's hard for an ecosystem to support many of them because so much energy is lost at each level of energy exchange.
C) by overexploitation, humans have caused many predatory species to become endangered.
D) it takes a long time for big, predatory animals to evolve.
E) It's hard for a big animal to move through dense vegetation.
transformation, movement and reuse of nutrients in ecosystems
Which of the following is a way that water moves through the ecosystem?
E) all of the above
The Phosphorous Cycle
Eighty percent of our atmosphere is nitrogen gas, yet every year farmers spray ammonia manufactured from natural gas on their fields as a fertilizer. This is because the only way to convert nitrogen from a gas into an available form is by:
B) nitrifying bacteria.
C) denitrifying bacteria.
D) nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
The diagram shows a general model of nutrient cycling. There are major differences between kingdoms of organisms; however, all living things contribute to one of the arrows on this diagram. Which arrow shows an activity or activities that is/are performed by every living thing?
B) respiration, decomposition, and excretion
Which of the following does not control the rate of decomposition?
C) nutrient availability
D) water source
T/F Rapid decomposition results in relatively high levels of nutrients in the soil.
Which of the following best defines the goal of restoration ecology?
A) Replace a damaged ecosystem with a more suitable ecosystem for that area and time.
B) Speed up the restoration of a degraded ecosystem or completely restore a disturbed ecosystem back to its former undisturbed state.
C) Prevent further degradation by protecting the area in question with park status.
D) Manage competition between species in human-altered ecosystems.
E) Remove certain species so that others may thrive
the use of organisms to detoxify ecosystems
uses organisms to add essential materials to a degraded ecosystem
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 54 Community Ecology
Chapter 52 Introduction to Ecology
Chapter 56 Conservation Biology
Chapter 53 Population Ecology
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