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199 terms

Learning, Chance Chapters 1-12

SAFMEDS for PSY309:02 at the University of Mississippi Based on Chapters 1 - 12 of Chance (2009) Learning & Behavior: Active Learning Edition
STUDY
PLAY
Learning: A _______ in behavior due to experience
change
___________: A change in behavior due to experience
Learning
___________: A decrease in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from repeated exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response
Habituation
Habituation: A ________ in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from repeated exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response
decrease
___________: A relationship between a specific event and a simple, involuntary response to that event
Reflex
Modal action pattern: A series of interrelated acts found in all or nearly all members of a ___________:
Species
___________: An increase in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from earlier exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response
Sensitization
Sensitization: An ___________ in the intensity or probability of a reflex response resulting from earlier exposure to a stimulus that elicits that response
Increase
___________: Any change in a gene
Mutation
Mutation: Any ___________ in a gene
Change
___________: Any event that affects, or is capable of affecting, behavior
Stimulus
Stimulus: Any event that ___________ or is capable of affecting behavior
affects
General behavior trait: Any general behavioral tendency that is strongly influenced by ___________
genes
___________: Any stimulus that reliably elicits a fixed action pattern
Releasing stimulus
Releasing stimulus: Any stimulus that reliably ___________ a fixed action pattern
elicits
Behavior: Actions of the ___________ organism that can be measured
whole
___________: Actions of the whole organism that can be measured
Behavior
___________: the development or evolutionary history of a species
Phylogeny
Phylogeny: the development or evolutionary history of a ________
species
___________: development or life history of an individual organism
Ontogeny
Ontogeny: development or life history of an ___________
organism
___________: Any stimulus the removal of which is reinforcing; characterizing an event that is likely to be avoided
Aversive
Aversive: Any stimulus the ___________ of which is reinforcing; characterizing an event that is likely to be avoided
removal
_________ stimulus: Any stimulus the presence of which is reinforcing
Appetitive
___________: A graphic record of behavior, each point of which reflects the total number of times a behavior has been performed as of that time
Cumulative record
___________: A research design in which the independent variable is made to vary at different times for the same subject
Within-subject
___________: Axis along which the unit of time is plotted
X-axis
X-axis (abscissa): Axis along which the unit of ___________ is plotted
time
___________: Axis along which the dimension of the response is plotted
y-axis
y-axis (ordinate): Axis along which the dimension of the ___________ is plotted
behavior
___________: time-series research design with repeated baseline and intervention conditions
ABAB
ABAB design: time-series research design with ___________ baseline and intervention conditions
repeated
___________: Time-series research design in which two or more interventions alternate systematically
ATD
alternating-treatments design: Time-series research design in which two or more interventions ___________
alternate systematically
___________: time-series research design that involves successively changing the criterion for delivering consequences
changing criterion
changing criterion design: time-series research design that involves successively changing the criterion for ___________
delivering consequences
___________: research design with repeated treatments across different situations
multiple-baseline
___________: An experimental design in which the independent variable is made to vary across two or more groups of subjects
Between-subjects experiment
___________: First- or secondhand reports of personal experience
Anecdotal evidence
___________: period of observation but no intervention
baseline
___________: In an experiment, the variable that the researcher manipulates
Independent variable
Independent variable: In an experiment, the variable that the researcher ___________
manipulates
___________: The variable by which the outcome of an experiment is measured
Dependent variable
Dependent variable: The variable by which the outcome of an experiment is ___________
measured
Pavlovian Extinction: the procedure of repeatedly presenting a CS without the ___________
US (unconditioned stimulus)
Pavlovian ___________: the procedure of repeatedly presenting a CS without the US
Extinction
Operant Extinction: the procedure of ___________ the reinforcers that maintain a behavior
withholding
Operant ___________: the procedure of withholding the reinforcers that maintain a behavior
Extinction
___________: events dependent on the appearance of a stimulus
Stimulus contingent
___________: events dependent on the appearance of a behavior
Response contingent
___________ conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS and US occur together in time
Simultaneous
___________ conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS begins and ends before the US is presented
Trace
___________ conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS starts before, and then overlaps with, the US
Delayed
___________ conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the US precedes the CS
Backward
___________: A variation of Pavlovian conditioning in which a stimulus is paired, not with a US, but with a well-established CS
Higher-order
___________: Failure of a stimulus that is part of a compound stimulus to become a CS
Overshadowing
___________: Failure of a stimulus to become a CS when it is part of a compound stimulus that includes an effective CS
Blocking
___________: In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that is regularly paired with a US
CS+
___________: In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that regularly appears in the absence of the US
CS-
Contiguity: ___________ of events in time (temporal contiguity) or space (spatial contiguity)
nearness
___________: The interval between the CS and US
Interstimulus interval (ISI)
___________: The interval separating the trials of a discrete trial procedure
Intertrial interval
Unconditional response: The response ___________ by an unconditional stimulus
elicited
___________: The response elicited by an unconditional stimulus
Unconditional response (UR)
___________: the response elicited by a conditional stimulus
Conditional response (CR)
Conditional response: the response elicited by a ___________ stimulus
conditional
___________: The stimulus that elicits a conditional response
Conditional stimulus (CS)
___________: The stimulus that elicits an unconditional response
Unconditional stimulus (US)
___________: The sudden reappearance of a behavior following its extinction
Spontaneous recovery
___________ therapy: A form of counterconditioning in which a CS is paired with an aversive US
Aversion
Systematic ___________: A form of counterconditioning for treating phobias in which a person imagines progressively stronger forms of the frightening CS while relaxed It
desensitization
___________ desensitization: A form of counterconditioning for treating phobias in which a person imagines progressively stronger forms of the frightening CS while relaxed It
Systematic
___________: A reduction in the rate of responding due to the noncontingent presentation of an aversive CS
Conditioned suppression
___________: An aversion, acquired through Pavlovian conditioning, to foods with a particular properties
Conditioned taste aversion
___________ therapy: Any of several forms of counterconditioning in which a person is gradually exposed to a feared stimulus
Exposure
___________: The use of Pavlovian conditioning to reverse the unwanted effects of prior conditioning
Counterconditioning
___________ chaining: A procedure in which training begins with the first response in the chain and adds subsequent links in order
Forward
Forward chaining: A procedure in which training begins with the _____ response in the chain and adds subsequent links in order
first
___________ chaining: A procedure in which training begins with the last link in the chain and adds preceding links in reverse order
Backward
___________ learning: A form of negative reinforcement in which the subject first learns to escape, and then to avoid, an aversive
Escape-avoidance
Satiation: A ___________ in the effectiveness of a reinforcer due to exposure to or consumption of the reinforcer
reduction
___________: A reduction in the effectiveness of a reinforcer due to exposure to or consumption of the reinforcer
Satiation
___________ reinforcement: A procedure that increases behavior in which a behavior is followed by the presentation of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus
Positive
___________ reinforcement: A procedure that increases behavior in which a behavior is followed by the removal of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus
Negative
Positive reinforcement: A procedure that increases behavior in which a behavior is followed by the ___________ of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus
presentation
Negative reinforcement: A procedure that increases behavior in which a behavior is followed by the ___________ of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus
removal
___________: A sudden increase in the rate of behavior during the early stages of extinction
Extinction burst
Extinction burst: A sudden ___________ in the rate of behavior during the early stages of extinction
increase
___________: A neurotransmitter that is thought to be important in reinforcement More commonly known as adrenaline
Epinephrine
___________ procedure: A training procedure in which a behavior may be repeated any number of times
Free operant
___________ procedure: An operant training procedure in which performance of a behavior defines the end of a trial
Discrete trials
___________ learning: Any procedure in which a behavior becomes stronger or weaker (eg, more or less likely to occur), depending on its consequences
Operant
___________ reinforcer: Any reinforcer that has acquired its reinforcing properties through its association with other reinforcers
Secondary
Secondary reinforcer: Any reinforcer that has ___________ its reinforcing properties through its association with other reinforcers
acquired
___________ reinforcer: Any reinforcer that is not dependent on another reinforcer for its reinforcing properties
Primary
___________ reinforcer: Any reinforcing event that follows automatically (naturally) from a behavior
Natural
___________ reinforcer: Any reinforcing event that has been arranged by someone, usually for the purpose of modifying behavior
Contrived
Contrived reinforcer: Any reinforcing event that has been ___________ by someone, usually for the purpose of modifying behavior
arranged
___________ operation: Anything that establishes conditions that improve the effectiveness of a reinforcer Also called establishing operation
Motivating
___________: In operant training, the procedure of establishing a behavior chain
Chaining
Shaping: In operant training, the procedure of reinforcing successive ___________of a desired behavior
approximations
___________: In operant training, the procedure of reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior
Shaping
___________: One of the brain's major neurotransmitters that is thought to play an important role in reinforcement
Dopamine
___________: The essential elements of operant learning, often represented by the letters ABC
Three-term contingency
Premack principle: The observation that high-probability behavior ___________ low-probability behavior
reinforces
___________: The observation that high-probability behavior reinforces low-probability behavior
Premack principle
___________: The procedure of identifying the component elements of a behavior chain
Task analysis
___________: The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that increase or maintain the strength of that behavior
Reinforcement
Reinforcement: The procedure of providing ___________ for a behavior that increase or maintain the strength of that behavior
consequences
___________: The reappearance during extinction of a previously reinforced behavior
Resurgence
Resurgence: The ___________ during extinction of a previously reinforced behavior
reappearance
___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the behavior of two or more organisms
Cooperative
___________schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules alternate, with each schedule associated with a particular stimulus
Multiple
___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules are available at the same time
Concurrent
___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules, neither associated with a particular stimulus, alternate
Mixed
___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule that consists of a series of simple schedules, each of which is associated with a particular stimulus, with reinforcement delivered only on completion of the last schedule in the series
Chain
___________ schedule: A complex reinforcement schedule that consists of a series of simple schedules (without particular stimuli), with reinforcement delivered only on completion of the last schedule in the series
Tandem
___________: A form of differential reinforcement in which a behavior is reinforced only if it occurs at least a specified number of times in a given period
Differential reinforcement of high rate (DRH)
___________: A form of differential reinforcement in which a behavior is reinforced only if it occurs no more than a specified number of times in a given period
Differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL)
___________: A pause in responding following reinforcement; associated primarily with FI and FR schedules
Postreinforcement pause
___________: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced each time it occurs
Continuous reinforcement (CRF)
Continuous reinforcement: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced ____ it occurs
each time
___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it occurs following a specified interval since the last reinforcement
Fixed interval (FI)
Fixed Interval Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it ___________ following a specified interval since the last reinforcement
occurs
___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it occurs following an interval since the last reinforcement, with the interval varying around a specified average
Variable interval (VI)
Variable interval Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced the first time it occurs following an interval since the last reinforcement, with the interval ___________ around a specified average
varying
___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for a fixed period of time
Fixed duration
___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for a period of time, with the length of the time varying around an average
Variable duration (VD)
___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered at varying intervals regardless of what the organism does
Variable time (VT)
___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered independently of behavior at fixed intervals
Fixed time (FT)
___________ Schedule: A reinforcement schedule in which, on average, every nth performance of a behavior is reinforced
Variable ratio (VR)
___________: A rule describing the delivery of reinforcers for a behavior
Schedule of reinforcement
___________: Any operant training procedure in which certain kinds of behavior are systematically reinforced and others are not
Differential reinforcement
___________: Disruption of the pattern of responding due to stretching the ratio of reinforcement too abruptly or too far
Ratio strain
___________: The distinctive rate and pattern of responding associated with a particular reinforcement schedule
Schedule effects
Matching law: The principle that, given the opportunity to respond on two or more reinforcement schedules, the rate of responding on each schedule will ___________ the reinforcement available on each schedule
match
___________: The procedure of gradually increasing the number of responses required for reinforcement
Stretching the ratio
___________: The procedure of providing reinforcers independently of behavior
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR)
The rate at which a behavior occurs once it has resumed following reinforcement
Run rate
___________: The tendency of a behavior to be more resistant to extinction following partial reinforcement than following continuous reinforcement
Partial reinforcement effect (PRE)
___________: A form of differential reinforcement in which a behavior that is incompatible with an unwanted behavior is systematically reinforced
Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI)
___________: A form of differential reinforcement in which reinforcement is contingent on the complete absence of a behavior for a period of time
Differential reinforcement of zero responding (DR0)
___________ punishment: A procedure that reduces behavior in which that behavior is followed by the presentation of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus Also called type 1 punishment
Positive
Positive punishment: A procedure that reduces behavior in which a behavior is followed by the ___________ of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus Also called type 1 punishment
presentation
___________ punishment: A procedure that reduces behavior in which a behavior is followed by the removal of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus
negative
___________: Any consequence of a behavior that decreases the strength of that behavior
Punisher
___________: The procedure of altering the environment to prevent unwanted behavior from occurring
Response prevention
Punishment: The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that ____ the strength of that behavior
decreases
___________: The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that reduce the strength of that behavior
Punishment
___________: A self-control technique consisting of directing attention away from events that are likely to elicit undesirable behavior
Distraction
___________: A self-control technique consisting of doing something that physically prevents an undesirable behavior from occurring
Physical restraint
___________: A self-control technique consisting of keeping a tally of the number of times the behavior in question occurs
Monitoring behavior
___________: A self-control technique consisting of staying away from situations that are likely to elicit undesirable behavior
Distancing
___________: An increased tendency to work hard for prolonged periods as a result of reinforcement of high levels of effort and persistence
Learned industriousness
___________: Any increase in the strength of behavior that is due to coincidental reinforcement
Superstitious behavior
___________: The failure to escape an aversive following exposure to an inescapable aversive
Learned helplessness
___________ punishment: A decrease in an observer's tendency to imitate a model when the model's behavior has been punished
Vicarious
vicarious ___________: An increase in an observer's tendency to imitate a model when the model's behavior has been reinforced
reinforcement
___________: Any procedure in which an organism learns by observing the behavior of another organism
Observational learning
Generalized imitation: The tendency to imitate modeled behavior even though the imitative behavior is not ___________
reinforced
___________: The tendency to imitate modeled behavior even though the imitative behavior is not reinforced
Generalized imitation
___________ discrimination training: A discrimination training procedure in which the S+ and S- are presented at the same time
Simultaneous
___________ discrimination training: A discrimination training procedure in which the S+ and S- are presented one after the other in random sequence
Successive
___________: A discrimination training procedure in which the task is to select from two or more comparison stimuli the one that matches A sample
Matching to sample (MTS)
___________ discrimination training: A form of discrimination training in which the S is introduced in very weak form and gradually strengthened The usual result is that discrimination is achieved with few or no errors Also called the Terrace procedure
Errorless
SD: A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior ___________ be reinforced
will
___________: A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior will be reinforced
SD (S+)
SΔ: A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior ___________ be reinforced
will not
___________: A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior will not be reinforced
SΔ (S-)
___________: Any procedure for establishing a discrimination
Discrimination training
___________: Generalization based on an abstract (as opposed to a physical) property of a stimulus
Semantic generalization
___________: In operant discrimination training, any stimulus that signals either that a behavior will be reinforced (an S+ or SD) or will not be reinforced (an S- or SΔ)
Discriminative stimulus
___________: A generalization gradient showing an increased tendency to respond to the S+ or CS+ and stimuli resembling them
Excitatory gradient
___________: A gradient showing a decreased tendency to respond to the S or CS and stimuli resembling them
Inhibitory gradient
___________: The finding that discrimination training proceeds more rapidly when different behaviors produce different reinforcers
Differential outcomes effect (DOE)
___________: The tendency following discrimination training for the peak of responding in a generalization gradient to shift away from the CS or S
Peak shift
___________: The tendency for a behavior to occur in the presence of an S+ but not in the presence of an SΔ
Stimulus control
___________: The tendency for a behavior to occur in the presence of certain stimuli but not in their absence
Discrimination
___________: The tendency for a learned behavior to occur in the presence of stimuli that were not present during training
Generalization
___________ method: A method of measuring forgetting by comparing the rate of extinction after a retention interval with the rate of extinction immediately after training
Extinction
___________ method: A method of measuring forgetting in which a behavior is learned to criterion before and after a retention interval
Relearning (savings)
___________: A method of measuring forgetting in which a behavior is tested for generalization before and after a retention interval - A flattening of the generalization gradient indicates forgetting
Gradient degradation
___________: A method of measuring forgetting in which hints (prompts) about the behavior to be performed are provided
Prompted (cued)
___________ recall: A method of measuring forgetting in which the subject is required to identify stimuli experienced earlier
Recognition
___________ recall: A method of measuring forgetting that consists of providing the opportunity to perform the learned behavior
Free
Mnemonic: Any technique for aiding ____
recall
___________: Any technique for aiding recall
Mnemonic
___________: Deterioration in learned behavior following a period without practice
Forgetting
Forgetting: ___________ in learned behavior following a period without practice
Deterioration
___________ forgetting: Forgetting that results from the absence of cues that were present during training
Cue-dependent
___________ learning: Learning that occurs during a particular physiological state (such as alcoholic intoxication) and is lost when that physiological state passes
State-dependent
___________: Number of correct responses per minute In general, a fluent performance is smooth, accurate, and relatively rapid
Fluency
___________: The continuation of training beyond the point required to produce one errorless performance
Overlearning
Retention interval: The time between training and testing for ____
forgetting
___________: The time between training and testing for forgetting
Retention interval
___________: A period in the development of an organism during which it is especially likely to learn a particular kind of behavior
Critical period
Continuum of ___________: The idea that organisms are genetically disposed to learn some things and not others
preparedness
Instinctive drift: The tendency for behavior to drift toward a ___________
fixed action pattern
___________: The tendency for behavior to drift toward a fixed action pattern
Instinctive drift