Chem Test Ch 15/16 Belciglio

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Terms in this set (...)

5 properties of water
bent shape, polar molecule, polar bonds, high surface tension, low vapor pressure
why does water have a high surface tension
h bonds
inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid
surface tension
why does water have a low vp (vapor pressure)
strong h bonding holding molecules together
ice has a ______ density that liquid water due to _____ structure of ice (h20 molecules are arranged in a honeymoon pattern)
lower, open
water that contains dissolved substances
aqueous solution
what is dissolved (less)
solute
what is doing the dissolving (more)
solvent
2 substances that dissolve easily in water
ionic compounds, polar covalent molecules
process where cations and anions in an ionic compound become surrounded by solvent molecules
solvation
most ionic compounds are _____ bc they dissociate into ions
electrolytes
compound that conducts electric current in aqueous
electrolyte
electrolytes are ____ ionic compounds
soluble
substances that dissolve well in solution
strong electrolytes
substances where a fraction of the substance exists as ions in solution
weak electrolytes
DOES NOT conduct electric current in aqueous solution
nonelectrolyte
non electrolytes include ______ compounds, and _____ ionic compounds
molecular, insoluble
compounds that contain water molecules within their crystal structure
hydrates
water molecules in a crystal structure of a compound
waters of hydration
needs water attached to itself to stabilize to keep from adding more air
deliquescent molecule
heterogenous aqueous systems are __ solutions
NOT
2 heterogenous aqueous systems
suspensions, colloids
much large and will settle over time
suspensions
particles of suspension have an average diameter greater than ____ mm and can be _____, at least 2 ____ can be clearly defined
1000, filtered, substances
colloids contain particles ranging in size from ___ nm to ____ nm
1, 1000
colloid particles are spread throughout the dispersion ____, and can be a solid, liquid, gas
medium
first colloids were __
glues
colloid size is smaller than ____ but larger than ____
suspension, solution
colloid particles do not settle over time and cannot be filtered out. Often subject to _______
coagulation
scattering of light by colloidal particles
tyndall effect
flashes of light or scintillation as particles reflect and scatter light while colliding and moving erratically
brownian motion
ex of suspensions
flour in water, water and coffee grounds
ex of colloids
whipped cream, marshmallow, milk (look at charts)
amount of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temp and pressure
solubility
solubility is expressed as
g of solute/ 100g solvent
solution that contains the maximum amount of solute for a given quantity of solvent
saturated solution
solution that contains less solute than their saturated solution
unsaturated solution
2 liquids dissolve in each other
miscible
liquids that are insoluble in one another
immiscible
factors affecting solubility
temp, pressure
produced by heating, then slowly cooling; very unstable
supersaturated solution
solubility of a gas _____ with a temp increase
decreases
solubility of gas ____ w an increase in pressure
increase
solubility of gas is proportional to pressure above the liquid
henrys law
measure of amount of solute that dissolves in solvent
concentration
solution containing a small amount of solute
dilute solution
solution w large amount of solute
concentrated solution
molarity formula
mol of solute/l of solution
making dilutions equation
m1v1=m2v2
molality formula
mol of solute/kg of solvent
mole fraction formula
mol of component/total mol of solution
property that depends on only the number of solute
colligative property
3 colligative properties
vapor pressure reduction, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation
vapor pressure of solution _ vapor pressure of solvent
<
freezing point of solution _ freezing point of pure solvent
<
boiling point of solution _ boiling point of pure solvent
>