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Roberto is 11 months old. He smiles a lot, is generally cheerful and shows little anxiety around strangers. Which type of temperament does Roberto have?


From The Real World on page 166: the optimal teacher/child ratio for children under age 2 is


In the Harlow monkey studies, with which "mother" did the infant monkeys spend the most time?

The mother covered in terrycloth

According to Bowlby's theory of attachment which of the following will a child have developed by age 5 years?

An internal model that includes self, mother and relationships in general

All of the following statements about attachment are true EXCEPT:

Attachment to fathers is not as strong because mothers have a biological advantage.

Which of the following is a term applied to an infant's cry and protest at being left with someone other than their primary caregivers?

Separation anxiety

Callie, age 11 months, went to the circus with her mother. When a clown came bouncing up to Callie's stroller, Callie was anxious and looked at her mother. When Callie's mother began to laugh at the clown, Callie joined in the laughter. Callie's behavior is called

social referencing.

Which of the following terms is used to describe children who readily separate from their caregivers and seem to enjoy exploring their surroundings?

Securely attached

Julie's mother is extremely busy with her job, which she does at home. Some days Julie's mom is responsive and attentive, other days she is so overwhelmed by work that she is emotionally unavailable. Which of the following attachment styles is Julie likely to develop?


Which of the following statements is true about attachment?

According to your text, the quality of attachment in infancy predicted sexual dysfunction in adults better than a sexual abuse history did.

The emotional and behavioral predispositions present at birth are thought to be the foundation of personality. These predispositions are collectively referred to as


Which of the following is true regarding the long-term stability of temperament?

Most studies have found that the basic temperament of a child stays relatively stable at least through age 12

________ is the process of selecting experiences based on temperament.


How does a child develop a subjective self?

By understanding her ability to have an effect on her environment

Which of the following statements about gender and temperament is true?

Temperament differences between boys and girls are smaller than what is perceived by parents and other adults

Megan is a toddler who participated in an experiment. Her mother placed a dot of rouge on her nose and sat her in front of a mirror to see if she would reach for the mirror or her own nose in order to touch the red spot. If Megan reaches for her own nose, she is demonstrating


At what age do self-conscious emotions typically arise?

18 months

Which of the following is NOT a self-conscious emotion


All-in-all what seems to be the most important factor in cognitive development in children?

Appropriate levels of stimulation

Which of the following statements about social development and day care is true?

Children in nonparental care seem to have a higher rate of insecure attachment than children with exclusively maternal care.

What is the crisis of Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development?

Trust versus mistrust

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