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Chemistry Final Hw
Terms in this set (130)
What is meant by the statement "sat fat is bad"?
Ingesting saturated fats can increase the threat of heart disease
Calculate the percentage decrease in NOx emissions after clean coal technology was installed at the Milliken power station
Increasing wavelength of light goes in this order:
ultraviolet > visible > infrared
The pH of lemon juice is approximately 2.40. At this pH, the hydronium ion concentration is closest to which concentration?
1. 4.0 x 10^-3 M
Which is not true concerning the discovery and development of the penicillin antibiotics?
World War I gave added impetus for the development of the penicillin antibiotics
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are there in the neutral atom of 13/6C?
According to the graph below, the US production of petroleum has steadily decreased since
Which pair represents isomers?
What condition must be met for a battery to be rechargeable?
The electrochemical reaction of the battery must be reversible
Based on this reaction and its energy profile, the reaction
The O2 molecule breaks apart at lower wavelengths than the O3 molecule. What is the main reason for this?
The average bond in O2 is shorter and stronger than that of O3
The family of compounds known as steroids share a common molecular framework of 17 carbon atoms that are arranged into four rings. Which is a representation of this common molecular framework?
2. According to the graph below, the major source of energy in the US during the years 1900 to 1950 was
Where is most of the carbon on earth stored?
in the form of fossil fuels and carbonate minerals and rocks
Which of these synthetic polymers is most closely related to the natural protein polymers?
What herb is reported to have mood-elevating activity?
St. John's wort
What is the primary determinant of the voltage developed by a battery?
the nature of the materials in the reaction
What is the structure of the ester that is formed in the following reaction?
How many joules are required to heat 2.0L of water from 20C to its boiling point of 100C? The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/gC and the density of water is 1 g/mL
6.7 x 10^5J
Alternative energy sources are currently being researched in effort to replace our dependence on fossil fuels. Which is not a current research effort in this regard?
reintroducing the use of tetraethyl lead to increase the octane rating of gasoline
In the famous equation E=mc^2, the symbols represent
E=energy, m=mass, c=speed of light
Which fact is not important when drawing conclusions from C-14 dating?
C-14 emits beta particles
HCFCs have been developed to replace CFCs are refrigerants. Which property of these new compounds makes them environmentally superior to CFCs?
Greater reactivity leads to decomposition at elevations below the stratospheric ozone concentration maximum
The current through a wire is most closely related to the
rate of electron flow through a wire
If a body needs approximately 1 Cal/kg of body weight per hour, about how many calories would a 75-kg (165lb) man need per day?
How many pounds of plastics were produced per person in 2003?
Which symbol(s) represent(s) elements in the noble gas family?
Which of the following would be described as "fine particles"?
2.5 um diameter soot
PET (polyethylene terephthalate) is classified as a polyester because
it contains many ester linkages
In the year 2000, which two energy sources contributed almost equally to our total energy usage?
coal and natural gas
Octane (C8H18) is one of the principal components of gasoline. How many moles of CO2 are produced during the combustion of 3.0 mol of octane? Unbalanced equation: C8H18 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
What is the formula of the ionic compound formed from magnesium, Mg, and chlorine, Cl?
Which compound has a correct formula?
The world map shows the availability of safe drinking water around the world. Which statement is true?
In the US and Canada, more than 90% of the population has access to clean water
In the early 1990s, glass manufacturers developed a green chemistry solution to reducing NO emissions and energy consumption. This involved
substituting 100% oxygen for air in the large furnaces used to melt and reheat the glass
The drawing shows a simple way of purifying salt water. What is this process called?
Weapons-grade uranium is approximately
The greenhouse effect refers to the process by which
atmospheric gases trap and return infrared radiation radiated by Earth
The process by which a solution is heated to its boiling point and the vapors are condensed and collected is known as
Nationally, the greatest amounts of NOx in the atmosphere are produced by which of these?
1. transportation sources (motor vehicles, aircraft, trains)
II. combustion of fuel in electrical utility plants and industry releases
III. nitrification in farm fields
I and II only
Which statement correctly describes starch and cellulose?
Starch and cellulose are both made from glucose but have different linkages
For linear n-hexane, C6H14, which molecular representation is correct?
In order to make useful predictions, which factors must be accounted for by climatic models?
I. cooling effect of atmospheric aerosols
II. Smoke, haze, and cloud cover
III. Change in land use
IV. Combustion of fossil fuels
I, II, III, and IV
A polymer is a large molecule
made up of long chains of atoms covalently bonded together
Structurally, how are water soluble and fat soluble vitamins different?
Water soluble vitamins contain polar groups, such as OH and fat soluble do not
Which substances are regulated by the Kyoto Protocol?
II. carbon dioxide
IV. nitrous oxide
V. sulfur hexafluoride
II, IV, and V only
Which is not a known advantage of natural gas over other fossil fuels?
it is far more abundant than any other fossil fuel
Reforming processes can store hydrogen fuel in a liquid form as another molecule. Which of the following cannot be reformed into hydrogen?
How much energy is equivalent to 1.0 x 10^-4 kg of matter? (speed of light = 3.0 x 10^8 m/s)
9.0 x 10^12 J
Which activity would a 70kg person need to do to "burn off" a meal consisting of a hamburger, 3oz of chips, and 2 beers?
golf for 3 hours
From 1974 to 2002, the chance that a white male would be diagnosed with melanoma skin cancer rose by
Which corresponds to the composition to the ion typically formed by fluorine?
The common OTC medication ibuprofen is sold as a racemic mixture although only the L-isomer is a pain reliever. What does the term "racemic mixture" mean?
There is an equal mixture of the + and - optical isomers in the drug preparation
Which best symbolizes the hydrogen bonding between two water molecules?
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) must be supplied daily in the diet. Why?
to keep you from getting scurvy
Petroleum (crude oil) is a complex mixture of thousands of substances, the majority of which are
Which is an advantage of using coal over petroleum as a source of energy in the United States?
Coal reserves in the United States are far greater than petroleum reserves
All of the energy we need to run our bodies comes from the food we eat. Which statement is false concerning this energy consumption?
The body converts glucose into carbon dioxide and water in one fast reaction
What is the molarity of sodium chloride in a solution containing .50 mol of sodium chloride in 500 mL of water?
What chemicals replaced CFCs as polymer blowing agents?
CO2 and pentane
Which Lewis structure for formaldehyde (CH2O) is correct?
Which reactive nitrogen compound is produced using the Haber-Bosch process?
The fuel for both nuclear and coal power plants must be mined. Which miners are most likely to contract black lung disease?
Compounds with the same chemical formulas but different molecular structures are called
Concerning dietary supplements, which of the following statements is true?
They are not reviewed by the FDA before they are marketed
Isotopes of an element have the same number of ___, but different numbers of ___
Which ions, if present in drinking water, would pose a significant health risk?
I, II, and III only
The major elements in the human body are C, H, O, N, P, and
Ca, Fe, Na
Which has not been suggested as a reasonably practical way to store large amounts of hydrogen in relatively small spaces for its use as a fuel?
Liquefy hydrogen under pressure and store it much as we do with liquefied natural gas today
Which is an oxidation half-reaction?
Zn -> Zn2+ + 2e-
The MCL for drinking water is the legal limit for the concentration of a contaminant expressed in ppm or ppb. This is always a lower concentration than the MCLG value for the same contaminant.
Two isotopes of a particular element differ from one another by the number of
Which chemical equation shows the dissociation of magnesium hydroxide?
MgOH -> Mg2+ + OH2-
Which of these polymers is made by the process of condensation polymerization?
Which form of water disinfection continues to provide antibacterial protection after the water leaves the purification plant?
Which of the following has the lowest albedo?
Which is true?
In carbon containing compounds, carbon usually forms four bonds, nitrogen usually forms three bonds, oxygen usually forms two bonds, and hydrogen only forms one bond
Adipic acid, one of the monomers used to make nylon, has a total of six carbon atoms with two carboxylic acid functional groups. Which structure is correct?
HOOC (CH2)4 COOH
Although carbon dioxide is the primary compound discussed with respect to global warming; of the common atmospheric components the global warming potential (GWP) of a carbon dioxide molecule is very low. Which statement best explains this pair of facts?
CO2 exists in relatively high concentrations
What is the purpose of the hot KOH solution in the fuel cell?
It maintains electroneutrality by working as an electrolyte; allowing transfer of ions between the half cells where the hydrogen and oxygen react
The name of the compound formed by combining carbon atoms with oxygen atoms to form CO2 is
Scientists predict that shells of some ocean creatures will start to dissolve after how many more years of ocean acidification?
The radioactive decay series of U238 terminates at which nonradioactive isotope?
Semiconductors are more effective than metals as converters of solar radiation into electricity because
the energy contained in sunlight gives the valence electrons in the semiconductor atoms the extra energy they need to "flow" throughout the solid
Which square(s) contain(s) only one or more compounds?
Which corresponds to the composition of the ion typically formed by magnesium?
The drawing shows two water molecules. Which statement is correct?
A: covalent bond; B: hydrogen bond; A is stronger
Which polymer is incorrectly matched with its use?
PS - contact lenses
When three fatty acid molecules combine with one molecule of glycerol, what forms?
one molecules of triglyceride and three molecules of water
Which vibrational mode for carbon dioxide is not expected to contribute to the greenhouse effect?
Which is not a mixture?
In order to halt increases in the amounts of these gases in the Earth's atmosphere, global greenhouse gas emissions must be decreased by 9 billion tons. Which of these would NOT provide that much relief in global greenhouse gas emissions?
None of the above would provide the needed 9 billion tons
UV-B radiation has a frequency of approximately 10^17s-1. What is the energy of a photon of this light?
6.63 x 10^-17 J
Which color, as used in the Air Quality Index, warns that the level of a pollutant is hazardous, the most dangerous level?
Which would contribute most to your annual radiation dose?
smoking a pack and a half of cigarettes per day
Which statement best fits the data presented?
Peanut butter has the highest protein and fat content
The heat of combustion of methane, CH4, is 50.1kJ/g. How much heat would be generated if 1.00 mol of methane undergoes complete combustion?
Although the nuclear reactors used to produce electricity do not release carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is still responsible for the release of this greenhouse gas. Which activity probably does not contribute largely to the carbon dioxide released by nuclear power generation.
cooling of the secondary coolant by a large reservoir of water
Predict the geometry of nitrous oxide N2O (atomic order N-N-O)
Every amino acid has four groups attached to a central carbon atom. What are the four groups?
-NH2, -COOH, side chain, -H
On a Periodic Table, the columns of elements with similar properties are
Which of the following is not carried out by bacteria in soil?
All of these are carried out by bacteria
Very small mercury batteries have been made and used in a multitude of applications. Why have they been placed by other kinds of batteries for most applications?
Mercury is poisonous and difficult to dispose of
Of five major gaseous components of air, which is the only one to vary significantly in concentration from place to place and from day to day?
The primary product of the combustion of sulfur is
Which equation correctly shows the breakdown of glucose by the body?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
The conclusion that is impossible to completely convert heat into work without making other changes in the universe is
the second law of thermodynamics
One approach to encourage more recycling is to institute a "bottle bill". What is a bottle bill?
a "container deposit law" that requires customers to pay a deposit for the bottle
Which does not contribute to your annual radiation dose?
the number of hours you spend listening to the radio
In what year will all production and importation of HCFCs end in the United States?
For this line-angle drawing, which condensed structural formula is correct?
Which is not considered to be low-level radioactive waste?
spent fuel rods
Which of these represents a portion of a polyester molecule?
What is biodegradation?
using bacteria and fungi to "eat" the waste plastic
The label on a popular brand of margarine states it is made from "partially hydrogenated" corn oil. Which statement is false?
The margarine has the same amount of unsaturated fat (C=C) as the corn oil
Which is not caused by prostaglandins?
inhibition of blood vessel dilation
Why are automobiles a contributor to acid rain when there is no sulfur in gasoline to make SOx?
Nitrogen from the atmosphere combines with oxygen in the hot engine to make NOx
The basal metabolism rate (BMR) is
the minimum amount of energy required daily for your body to function
Identify the chiral carbon atom in L-dopa (used to treat Parkinson's disease)
The distinctive arrangements of atoms that impart characteristic chemical properties to the molecules that contain them are called
A 120-pound person uses 3 Calories per minute walking at a 20 min/mile pace. Approximately, how many miles would a person have to walk to burn off a scoop of ice cream (175 calories)
As of 2007, what is the maximum efficiency of a multijunction solar cell?
Which anthropogenic pollutants are implicated in the formation of most acidic precipitation?
nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides
For safety reasons, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) must be contained
Air is a(n)
The attractions between anions and cations throughout a crystal are known collectively as
Which of these is not a realistic risk associated with nuclear power plants?
a nuclear explosion
Which component of the air makes up approximately 100 times more of an exhaled breath than of an inhaled breath?
What is the current expert consensus concerning the role of acid rain on the health of forests?
Acid rain weakens trees and the surrounding soil, leaving them susceptible to disease and insects
Which shows the Lewis structure of water with the correct partial charges and nonbonding electrons?
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