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The Road to Revolution

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as an economic resource
How did England view its North American colonies?
Benjamin Franklin
Who exemplified the Enlightenment in the colonies?
militia
A group of civilians trained to fight in emergencies
Albany Plan of Union
What proposal sought to unite the American colonies against the French?
Great Awakening
The religious revival that swept through the colonies was called the
backcountry
The region of small farms on or near the frontier (the furthest regions of European settlements) was known as the
mercantilism
What theory holds that a nation's power depended on expanding its trade?
Edward Braddock
What British commander was sent to conquer the French in the Ohio Valley?
France
The Treaty of Paris (1763) marked the end of power in North America for
Pennsylvania
Most German immigrants during the colonial era settled in _____________________.
tidewater
East Coast region downriver from the fall line. In early colonial Virginia, this region was known for the tobacco plantations being developed along the banks of its navigable rivers.
Edward Braddock
British commander in North America who lost his life leading an expedition against the French at Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) during the French and Indian War.
William Pitt (the Elder)
British secretary of state who oversaw the war effort (French and Indian War) from London
Proclamation of 1763
The __________ was a British attempt to halt the movement of British colonists west of the Appalachian Mountains in order to reduce conflict with the Native Americans.
Pontiac
Name the Ottawa chief who is credited with leading a Native rebellion against the British occupation of the Great Lakes region following the French and Indian War.
Appalachian Mountains
The Proclamation of 1763 prohibited colonists from moving west of the
Sugar Act (1764)
The British government tried to raise revenue and reduce smuggling with the
Stamp Act
What act taxed almost all printed material in the colonies?
smuggling
One of George Grenville's goals in the colonies was to take action to reduce
a writ of assistance
To search a colonist's house, a British customs officer presented
Declaratory Act
Which act stated that the British Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"?
propaganda
Colonial leaders used the Boston Massacre killings as
the French and Indian War
Great Britain issued the Proclamation of 1763 after ____________________.
Declaratory
As it repealed the Stamp Act, the British Parliament asserted its right to tax the colonies with the ____________________ Act.
Boston Tea Party
The Coercive Acts were passed to punish colonists in Boston and other parts of Massachusetts for the ____________________.
self-government
America's long history of home rule, or __________, dates back to at least 1619 when the Virginia House of Burgesses first met.
John Locke
__________ claimed that people had a right to overthrow any government that failed to protect their naturals rights to life, liberty and property.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
__________ stated that the "general will" of the people should govern society.
Baron de Montesquieu
__________ recommended a separation of governmental power into executive, legislative, judicial branches.
Enlightenment (Reason)
Throughout most of the colonial period, an intellectual movement known as the Age of __________ was occurring. The ideas of this movement greatly influenced the thinking of colonial (and revolutionary) leaders such as Benjamin Franklin, George Mason, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
Jonathan Edwards
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" is the most famous sermon delivered by __________, who was the Yale trained minister who helped spark the Great Awakening. He was also the grandfather of future Vice President and infamous duelist Aaron Burr.
John Peter Zenger
__________ was the first person acquitted (found innocent) of libel by using the "truth" defense (everything he printed was true, if unpleasant). This was an important step in the creation of a free press.
mercantilist
As part of its __________ economic philosophy, Great Britain attempted to control the colonies economies. Great Britain did this through a combination of manufacturing and trade restrictions and import taxes.
smuggling
The colonists frequently violated trade restrictions and/or failed to pay duties by _________, or sneaking the goods into the colony.
salutary neglect
The British practice of failing to strictly enforce Parliamentary laws and allowing a large degree of self-government throughout much of the colonial era is known as __________.
regulators
Conflict between the coastal, more established areas and the less developed "backcountry" areas led to backcountry revolts. These rebels, called __________, believed that they were fighting for their freedom against the tyranny of the coastal elites who controlled the colonial legislatures.
Isaac Newton
One of the most important figures of the Scientific Revolution, __________ is best known for his three laws of motion, universal law of gravitation and invention of calculus.
Great Awakening
George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards were leaders in what movement?
lights
Preachers who followed the new styles of worship spread by the Great Awakening were know as new __________ while those who did not were called old __________.
Scots-Irish
Which ethnic group tended to settle in Appalachia?
France
While England suffered from political instability in the mid to late 1600s, __________ became the dominant military and cultural power on the European continent.
four
Between 1690 and 1763, England and France fought __________ war(s).
the fur trade
The main economic focus of the French in North America was __________.
the Ohio Valley
The French and Indian War began over a conflict about competing claims over __________.
the French and Indian War
The French lost control of all of their North American colonies after __________.
George Washington
__________ led the expedition that ambushed a French scouting party and help spark the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War).
deep in debt
By the end of the French and Indian War, the British government was __________.
The French and Indian War
Which colonial war helped bring the different colonies together and increased tension between the colonies and Britain.
Benjamin Franklin
The Albany Plan of Union was proposed by __________.
Native Americans
The British government issued the Proclamation of 1763 in an attempt to reduce conflict between colonists and __________.
Writs of Assistance
General search warrants used by British customs officials in an attempt to catch smugglers
Quartering Act
Act that required the colonies to provide food and shelter to British troops
John Adams
__________ was the lawyer who defended the British troops involved in the Boston Massacre.
Paul Revere
Famous for being one of the men sent to Lexington with news of British troop movements and for an engraving of the Boston Massacre, __________ was a Boston silversmith.
British merchants
The British repealed the Stamp Act mostly in response to pressure from __________ hurt by the boycott.
Townshend Acts
The __________ taxed colonists on imported glass, paper, lead and tea.
Declaratory Act
When Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, it also passed the __________ which stated that Parliament had the authority to pass laws for the colonies.
colonial governors
Charles Townshend, the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, used revenue from the Townshend Acts to pay __________ , thus reducing the influence of the colonial legislatures over them.
tea
The Townshend Acts were repealed except for the tax on
tea
In response to the monopoly on the tea trade granted to the British East India Company, colonists in Boston held a "tea party." The Boston Tea Party was when the colonists dumped a shipment of __________ into the harbor.
Intolerable Acts
The British response to the Boston Tea Party was to pass the __________ (Coercive Acts) which suspended self government in Massachusetts and closed the port of Boston (among other things).
representation
"No taxation without __________!"
Stamp Act Congress
Delegates from nine colonies met in New York in October of 1765 in what came to be called the __________.
Parliament's
The Stamp Act Congress issued the Stamp Act Resolves which rejected __________ right to levy internal taxes in the colonies while the colonies remained unrepresented in Parliament.
Stamp Act
Ultimately, Parliament repealed the __________ in 1766 due to pressure from merchants hurt by a widespread boycott of British goods.
Sons of Liberty
The __________ were groups that formed to oppose the British government, sometimes by harassing and destroying the property of officials (especially tax collectors)
Daughters of Liberty
The __________ were groups formed to support the patriot cause, in part, by organizing spinning bees to replace boycotted cloth from Britain.
Committees of Correspondence
__________ were formed to spread news about and organize resistance to British government policies.
Dominion of New England
Short lived colonial union under the control of Governor Sir Edmund Andros that combined Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York and New Jersey. It fell apart after King James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution.
Glorious Revolution
This 1688 event was the second time in the 17th century that Parliament deposed an English King (James II was replaced with William and Mary).