Food and Agriculture

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48. Identify the major causes of malnutrition
. Poverty
49. Compare the environmental costs of producing different types of food.
Future food production may be limited by soil erosion and degradation, desertification, irrigation, irrigation water shortages, air and water pollution, climate change, and loss of biodiversity.
50. Explain how poverty is a major cause of malnutrition.
A condition that occurs when people do not consume enough calories or do not eat a sufficient variety of foods to fulfill all of the body's needs.
51. Explain the importance of the green revolution.
Artificial fertilizer made from nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; genetic engineering---hybridization; crossbreeding--high yielding seeds disease resistance); mechanical machinery (tractors, etc.0; irrigation; insecticides and herbicides
52. Distinguish between traditional and modern agricultural techniques.
Traditional farming involved a plow, livestock for a machine, and producing only enough for your local community...Modern farming involves artificial fertilization, genetic modification of food, and modern irrigation
53. What makes soil fertile?
Crops need nutrients just like people do. A fertile soil will contain all the major nutrients for basic plant nutrition (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium), as well as other nutrients needed in smaller quantities (e.g., calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum, nickel)
54. Why should we conserve soil?
The prevention or reduction of soil erosion and soil depletion by protective measures against water and wind damage
55. Explain the benefits and environmental impacts of pesticide use.
Pros: are a quick, effective and easy response to control pests; allow greater crop yields on less land thereby using less land for agriculture-made agriculture more efficient cons: kill/injure organisms other than intended targets; remain in the environment far after crop used on is harvested; affects high trophic levels in the food chain much more than lower trophic levels due to bioaccumulation
56. Explain what is involved in integrated pest management
Important pest management tool that uses a mix of methods such as traps, disease-resistant plants, and natural pest-killing substances, as well as the introduction of predators to control pests
57. Explain how genetic engineering is used in agriculture.
Scientists use genetic engineering to transfer genes for desirable traits, such as pest resistance, into crop plants from other organisms. Its benefits continue to be debated.
58. Explain how overharvesting affects the supply of aquatic organisms used for food.
Over harvesting, could cause a species, such as salmon, to become endangered in that area, and is very important problem for aquatic animals.
59. Describe the current role of aquaculture in providing seafood.
The rearing of aquatic organisms under controlled or semi-controlled conditions - Refers to organisms that spend their whole life cycle in water (most of the time) - Includes organisms raised for: • Direct consumption • "Delayed" consumption - Can include the use of wild-caught organisms
60. Describe the importance of livestock in providing food and other products.
Most crops fed to animals. Nearly all land given to growing crops but most devices from sale of animal products.