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Beliefs about social groups in terms of the traits or characteristics that they are deemed to share. They are cognitive frameworks that influence the processing of social information
Stereotypes concerning the traits possessed by females and males, and that distinguish the two genders from each other
Barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified women from advancing to top-level positions
Refer to the hiring based on group membership. It also can concern instances in which individuals perform trivial positive actions for members of out-groups that are later used as an excuse for refusing more meaningful beneficial actions for members of these groups
Views suggesting that women are superior to men in various always and are truly necessary for men's happiness
Social Creativity Responses
When low-status groups attempt to achieve positive distinctiveness for their group on alternative dimensions that do not threaten the high-status group
When people use one group as the standard but shift to another group as the comparison standard when judging members of a different group
Response scales that are open to inspection and lack an externally grounded referent, including scares labeled from good to bad or weak to strong. They are said to be subjective because they can take on different meanings, depending on the group membership of the person being evaluated
Scales with measurement units that are tied to external reality so that they mean the same thing regardless of category membership
Comparisons made between a target and other members of that same category only
The perception of a stronger association between two variables than actually exists
The tendency to perceive members of an out-group as "all alike" or more similar to each other than members of the in-group
The tendency to perceive members of our own group as showing much larger differences from one another (as being more heterogeneous) than members of other groups
In-group members are seen as more similar to each other than out-group members are. This tends to occur most among minority-group members
When people are categorized into different groups based on some "minimal" criteria, they tend to favor others who are categorized in the same group as themselves, compared with those categorized as members of a different group
Those feelings induced separately or before a target is encountered-so they are irrelevant to the group being judged, but can still affect judgments of the target
Links between group membership and trait associations or evaluations of which the perceiver may be unaware. They can be activated automatically when the target is categorized as a group member
Stimuli shown to participants so rapidly that the stimuli cannot be recognized or identified by them
It can be taken in two different forms, but it primarily concerns fear that one's group interests will be undetermined or that one's self-esteem is in jeopardy
Realistic Conflict Theory
The view that prejudice stems from direct competition between various social groups over scarce and valued resources
The tendency to divide the social world into separate categories: our in-group ("us") and various out-groups ("them")
Ultimate Attribution Error
The tendency to make more favorable and flattering attributions about members of one's own group than about members of other groups. In effect, it is the self-serving attributional bias at the group level
Social Identity Theory
A theory concerned with the consequences of perceiving the self a s a member of a social group and identifying with it
Differential (usually negative) behaviors directed toward members of different social groups
More subtle beliefs than blatant feelings or superiority. Consists primarily of thinking that minorities are seeking and receiving more benefits than they deserve and a denial that discrimination affects their outcomes
Social Learning View (of Prejudice)
The view that prejudice is acquired through direct and vicarious experiences in much the same manner as other attitudes
The view that increased contact between members of various social groups can be effect in reducing prejudice among them
Shifts in the boundaries between an individual's in-group and some out-group. As a result of such, persons formerly viewed as out-group members may now be viewed as belonging to the in-group, and consequently are viewed more positively
Common In-Group Identity Theory
A theory suggesting that to the extent to which individuals in different groups view themselves as members of a single social entity, intergroup bias will be reduced
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