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Its Causes, Effects, and cures


Beliefs about social groups in terms of the traits or characteristics that they are deemed to share. They are cognitive frameworks that influence the processing of social information

Gender Stereotypes

Stereotypes concerning the traits possessed by females and males, and that distinguish the two genders from each other

Glass Ceiling

Barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified women from advancing to top-level positions


Refer to the hiring based on group membership. It also can concern instances in which individuals perform trivial positive actions for members of out-groups that are later used as an excuse for refusing more meaningful beneficial actions for members of these groups

Benevolent Sexism

Views suggesting that women are superior to men in various always and are truly necessary for men's happiness

Social Creativity Responses

When low-status groups attempt to achieve positive distinctiveness for their group on alternative dimensions that do not threaten the high-status group

Hostile Sexism

The view that women are a threat to men's position


Prejudice based on gender, it typically refers to biases and negative responses toward women


The quality of being seen positively and as having worth

Shifting standards

When people use one group as the standard but shift to another group as the comparison standard when judging members of a different group

Subjective Scales

Response scales that are open to inspection and lack an externally grounded referent, including scares labeled from good to bad or weak to strong. They are said to be subjective because they can take on different meanings, depending on the group membership of the person being evaluated

Objective Scales

Scales with measurement units that are tied to external reality so that they mean the same thing regardless of category membership

Within-Group Comparisons

Comparisons made between a target and other members of that same category only


A subset of a group that is not consistent with the stereotype of the group as a whole

Illusory Correlation

The perception of a stronger association between two variables than actually exists

Out-Group Homogeneity

The tendency to perceive members of an out-group as "all alike" or more similar to each other than members of the in-group

In-Group Differentiation

The tendency to perceive members of our own group as showing much larger differences from one another (as being more heterogeneous) than members of other groups

In-Group Homogeneity

In-group members are seen as more similar to each other than out-group members are. This tends to occur most among minority-group members


Negative attitudes toward the members of specific social groups

Minimal Groups

When people are categorized into different groups based on some "minimal" criteria, they tend to favor others who are categorized in the same group as themselves, compared with those categorized as members of a different group

Incidental Feelings

Those feelings induced separately or before a target is encountered-so they are irrelevant to the group being judged, but can still affect judgments of the target

Implicit Associations

Links between group membership and trait associations or evaluations of which the perceiver may be unaware. They can be activated automatically when the target is categorized as a group member

Subliminal Levels

Stimuli shown to participants so rapidly that the stimuli cannot be recognized or identified by them


It can be taken in two different forms, but it primarily concerns fear that one's group interests will be undetermined or that one's self-esteem is in jeopardy

Realistic Conflict Theory

The view that prejudice stems from direct competition between various social groups over scarce and valued resources

Superordinate Goals

Goals that can be achieved only by cooperation between groups

Social Categorization

The tendency to divide the social world into separate categories: our in-group ("us") and various out-groups ("them")


The social group to which an individual perceives herself or himself as belonging ("us")


Any group other than the one to which individuals perceive themselves as belonging

Ultimate Attribution Error

The tendency to make more favorable and flattering attributions about members of one's own group than about members of other groups. In effect, it is the self-serving attributional bias at the group level

Social Identity Theory

A theory concerned with the consequences of perceiving the self a s a member of a social group and identifying with it


Differential (usually negative) behaviors directed toward members of different social groups

Modern Racism

More subtle beliefs than blatant feelings or superiority. Consists primarily of thinking that minorities are seeking and receiving more benefits than they deserve and a denial that discrimination affects their outcomes


Using a stimulus to make accessible related information in memory

Bona Fide Pipeline

A technique that uses priming to measure implicit racial attitudes

Ambivalent Racial Attitudes

Both positive and negative feelings about a minority group

Social Learning View (of Prejudice)

The view that prejudice is acquired through direct and vicarious experiences in much the same manner as other attitudes

Contact Hypothesis

The view that increased contact between members of various social groups can be effect in reducing prejudice among them


Shifts in the boundaries between an individual's in-group and some out-group. As a result of such, persons formerly viewed as out-group members may now be viewed as belonging to the in-group, and consequently are viewed more positively

Common In-Group Identity Theory

A theory suggesting that to the extent to which individuals in different groups view themselves as members of a single social entity, intergroup bias will be reduced

Social Norms

Rules within a particular social group concerning what actions and attitudes are appropriate

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