1. Bacterial biofilms are important medically because: a. They may form on catheters b. They are resistant to treatment with antibiotics c. They can form dental plaque d. They are resistant to immune defenses e. All are correct
e. All are correct
2. A prokaryote that occupies a habitat consisting of a low pH is a(an): a. Thermophile b. Halophile c. Basophile d. Acidophile e. Hydrophile
3. A prokaryote that occupies a habitat that is extremely salty is a(an): a. Thermophile b. Acidophile c. Halophile d. Basophile e. Hydrophile
4. A prokaryote that occupies a habitat that is characterized by extreme heat (above 50 degrees Celsius) is a(an): a. Thermophile b. Acidophile c. Halophile d. Basophile e. Hydrophile
5. DNA that is separate and apart from the chromosome in a prokaryote is the: a. Ribosome b. Endospore c. Nucleus d. Nucleoid e. Plasmid
6. The structure that assembles proteins in the prokaryote is the: a. Plasmid b. Ribosome c. Cell membrane d. Endospore e. Lysosome
7. The rigid barrier that surrounds most prokaryotes is the: a. Cell membrane b. Flagellum c. Glycocalyx d. Cell wall e. Cytoplasm
d. Cell wall
8. A function that the glycocalyx does not have for a bacterium is: a. Attachment b. Resistance to drying c. Protein synthesis d. Protection from immune system cells e. Production of biofilms
c. Protein synthesis
9. The structures of prokaryotes that are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another are: a. Sex pili b. Flagella c. Endospores d. Attachment pili e. Cilia
a. Sex pili
10. The structure that aids in locomotion of some bacteria is a(an):
a. Pilus b. Flagellum and Cilium c. Flagellum d. Cilium e. Flagellum and Pilus
b. Flagellum and Cilium
11. An asexual process used by prokaryotes, in which replicated DNA and other cell parts are distributed into two daughter cells is called:
a. Mitosis b. Binary fusion c. Daughter cell duplication d. Binary fission e. Conjugation
d. Binary fission
12. A type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell takes up naked DNA without cell to cell contact is:
a. Transformation b. Conjugation c. Replication d. Transduction e. Fixation
13. A type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell receives DNA from another cell through sex pili is:
a. Transformation b. Replication c. Transduction d. Conjugation e. Fixation
14. A type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell receives bacterial DNA from a bacteriophage is:
a. Conjugation b. Transformation c. Transduction d. Replication e. Fixation
15. The three most common shapes of bacteria are:
a. Star-shaped, cubical, and spherical b. Spherical, rod-shaped, and spiral c. Cubical, spiral, and thread-like d. Rod-shaped, star-shaped, and cubical e. Cubical, spherical, and rod-shaped
b. Spherical, rod-shaped, and spiral
16. Chloroplasts and mitochondria have relatively small circular chromosomes which supports the endosymbiotic theory that they arose from which of the following?
a. Viruses b. Other eukaryotic cells c. Bacteria d. Naked DNA e. Protists
17. Cyanobacteria are phototrophic. Which of the following would they also be considered?
a. Heterotrophic b. Autotrophic c. Chemotrophic d. Obligate anaerobes e. Aerobic
18. In a tetanus shot, patients are injected with small amounts of tetanospasmin, a toxin produced by the Clostridium tetani, the bacterium that causes tetanus. The gene for this protein is carried on a plasmid in the bacterium. Which of the following is true of this gene?
a. It is part of the Clostridium tetani chromosome b. It cannot go through horizontal gene transfer c. It can enter another bacterium by transformation d. It cannot go through vertical gene transfer e. It is found in the nucleus of the Clostridium tetani
c. It can enter another bacterium by transformation
19. Escherichia coli and Salmonella can remain in one location in our intestines. They would most likely contain which of the following?
a. Pili b. Flagella c. Cilia d. Glycocalyx e. Spirochetes
20. Many drugs are produced by placing human genes into bacteria. The bacteria then transcribe and translate these genes into functional human proteins that can then be purified and given as drugs. The fact that this process works is consistent with which statement?
a. Bacteria have evolved to mimic human cells b. Bacteria cannot divide unless they are inside a host cell c. Humans and bacteria share a common ancestor d. Bacteria need to make human proteins to live inside the human body e. Human and bacteria use different genetic material
c. Humans and bacteria share a common ancestor
21. As a budding basic scientist you work in a research laboratory and discover a chemical that removes the cell wall from bacteria but leaves the organism undamaged otherwise. Things that the bacteria will lose because of this include:
a. The ability to move b. The ability to attach to other cells c. The ability to metabolize d. The ability to use oxygen e. The ability to have a gram stain result
e. The ability to have a gram stain result
22. Vibrio cholera is the cause of cholera, and has a single flagellum stretching off from one end looking very much like a tail. A characteristic of this organism should be:
a. An ability to avoid ingestion by cells in the immune system b. An ability to induce a large antibody response c. An ability to move in the direction opposite the flagellum d. An ability to transmit DNA to other bacteria e. An ability to attach to cells in the host organisms intestines
c. An ability to move in the direction opposite the flagellum
23. Infections by Heliobacter pylori cause 90% of peptic ulcers in the U.S. These bacteria have pili that are expressed in acidic conditions. A characteristic of this organism should be:
a. An ability to attach to cells in the host organism's stomach b. An ability to move in the direction opposite the pili c. An ability to avoid ingestion by cells in the immune system d. An ability to induce a large antibody response e. An ability to enter the blood stream
a. An ability to attach to cells in the host organism's stomach
24. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate aerobe. In which organ would you expect to find these bacteria?
a. Intestines b. Brain c. Liver d. Kidney e. Lung
25. Which of the following is true of gram-positive bacteria, and not of gram-negative bacteria?
a. It has a thick cell membrane b. Its cell wall is made of a thick layer of peptidoglycan c. It has a nucleus d. It is larger, and thus weighs more grams e. It is more likely to trigger an immune response and cause inflammation and fever
b. Its cell wall is made of a thick layer of peptidoglycan
26. Methicillin inhibits cell wall production. Why does this make it an effective antibiotic?
a. The cell wall of human cells is not sensitive to methicillin b. Human cells have a plasma membrane in addition to the cell wall that allows them to survive in the presence of methicillin c. Human cells do not have cell walls d. All humans have a gene giving methicillin resistance e. Human cells and bacterial cells are completely different, so methicillin does not affect human cells
c. Human cells do not have cell walls
27. Methicillin is related to penicillin, which was isolated from the bread mold Penicillium. Based on this, which of the following can you conclude is different between S. aureus and Penicillium?
a. The composition of their plasma membrane b. Their type of genetic material c. The structure of their organelles d. The composition of their cell wall e. The enzymes in glycolysis
d. The composition of their cell wall
Based on figure 16.14, which of the following is the most likely explanation for the observed pattern of MRSA strains?
a. The methicillin resistance mutation has evolved many times through processes like conjugation b. The methicillin resistance mutation arose once and was passed through processes like binary fission c. Methicillin resistance is a recessive mutation, and only appears when two carrier bacteria mate d. The distribution of methicillin resistance is random, and is not likely caused by a single mutation e. Toxic shock syndrome is caused by methicillin resistance
a. The methicillin resistance mutation has evolved many times through processes like conjugation
Based on figure 16.15, which of the following best explains why toxic shock syndrome peaked in the early 1980s?
a. Some strains of S. aureus developed resistance to methicillin. b. The drug methicillin was invented in the 1980s c. A single strain of S. aureus was responsible for the toxic shock syndrome, and women could not develop immunity to this strain d. Some strains of S. aureus were able to adapt to the new environment produced by ultra-high-absorbency tampons
d. Some strains of S. aureus were able to adapt to the new environment produced by ultra-high-absorbency tampons
30. Bacteria and archaea use the same four bases in their DNA as eukaryotes. This supports which of the following statements?
a. DNA evolved independently at least three times b. DNA was the original genetic material c. All three domains arose from a common ancestor d. Bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes could interbreed e. Bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes contain the same set of genes