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Menacing Microbes

Serve as infectious agents
Human diseases
Animal diseases
Plant diseases


•Do you think you are infected if these microbiota are found on your tongue?

disease results***

•When a pathogen overcomes the host's resistance,

How are microbes used as resources?***

•Solve environmental problems
-Degrade biodegradable materials
-Recycle nutrients in ecosystems on earth
•Solve agricultural problems
-Nitrogen fixation
-Food production
•Solve medical problems
-Drug, enzyme, vaccine

both beneficial and harmful***

•Microbes are
C.more harmful than beneficial
D.more beneficial than harmful
E.both beneficial and harmful


•Living organisms too small to be seen with naked eye

Microorganisms include:


Scopes of microbiology***

•Public health
•Food microbiology
•Agricultural microbiology
•Industrial microbiology
•Genetic engineering


antigen and antibody reaction


the microorganism in immunizations


stuff produced from self/ body inside


how the disease spreads


uses enzymes use microorganisms as a vector=cell

no,*** antibacterial products produce a mutant bug. Regular use of antibacterial cleaning products produces/promotes antibiotic resistant mutant

Advertisements tell you that bacteria and viruses are all over your home and that you need to buy antibacterial cleaning products. Should you?

antibacterial products produce a mutant bug.*** Regular use of antibacterial cleaning products produces/promotes antibiotic resistant mutant

What is consequence for regular use of antibacterial cleaning products?

Not true***

Is the comment you see in the commercial true or not?
-Only a dead germ is a good germ!


Where are microorganisms found?

no sterilized = germ free**

•Can you find microorganisms in
-the sterilized environment?

not suppose to have germs

Can you find microorganisms in
-closed circulatory system?


no nucleus (All bacteria has no membrane bound oraganelles


has nulceus

Rapid reproduction

What attributes of bacteria are important for research?


Viruses are not living organisms


viruses are living entities

virus, viroid,prion

viruses that are living entities include


infect humans draws greater attention


peice of tiny, infects plants, citrus disease, cownut dunk (disease would make cocunuts fall at night)


a mutated pr protein. Can go anywhere. Ex mad cow disease


Most microorganisms are ____________/__________

non-disease causing agent**

Free living species refers to

•Anton van Leeuwenhoek***

-Dutch linen merchant
-First one invented microscope
-First one to see bacterial cells
-Farther of bacteriology and protozoology

Francesco Redi

-One of the first people to doubt the spontaneous generation theory
-His and related experiments partially disproved the idea of spontaneous generation
-His experiments did not convince many scientists that simpler organisms such as microorganisms could arise this way

Louis Pasteur***

-Invented pasteurization
-Finally disproved abiogenesis
-Completed some of the first studies in Germ Theory of Disease

Robert Koch***

Perfected germ theory of disease
-Established postulates
- postulates are the cornerstone of the germ theory of disease

Germ theory of disease

Theory that germs cause the disease

abiogenesis theory/
spontaneous generation

early stage theory that all things come from non living organism {(trash created rats/worms. or meat produced worms)later disproved}

Koch's Postulates

1.Isolate the organism from every case
2.Propagate in pure culture in vitro
3.Reproduce disease by injecting the organism into a suitable recipient
4.Re-isolate the organism

Kochs postulate

symptom>isolation>culture>re-inoculate>symptom(see if this culture produces symptom again

Corolus Linnaeus***

Originated the idea of classifying organisms according to a hierarchy of increasingly restrictive levels or taxa
-Standardized binomial system of nomenclature

Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom***


Biogenesis theory**

living organisms come from living organisms

Abiogenesis theory/spontaneous generation theory

theory of living organisms coming from non living organisms (meat produces maggots, leter disproved)

spontaneous generation**

early belief that living things arose from vital forces presentin nonliving and decomposing matter.


a possible explanation/educated guess

making observations*******

Steps of proving a hypothesis in inductive approach begin with
A. formulating a hypothesis.
B. testing hypothesis.
C. making observations.
D. consulting prior knowledge.

formulating a hypothesis***

Steps proving hypothesis in deductive approach
A. formulating a hypothesis.
B. testing hypothesis.
C. making observations.
D. consulting prior knowledge.

Steps to proving a hypothesis****

1. making observation (inductive approach)
2. Formulating Hypothesis (deductive approach)
3.test hypothesis
4. collect data
5. Interpret data
6. Draw conclusion
7.Scientific theory


The formal filing systemm scientists use to classify living things.

C establishin kingdom is not included***

Taxonomic system has three primary functions excpet
AClassification B Nomenclature C. establishing kingdom D identifying species

classification, nomenclature, identification of species

What are the three primary functions of the taxonomic system?


orderly arrangement of organisms into groups


assigning names


discovering and recording traits of organisms for placement into taxonomic schemes

Genus - noun, always capitalized**
**-species - adjective, lowercase
•Both italicized or underlinedStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)
-Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis)
-Escherichia coli (E. coli)
-Homo sapiens (H. sapiens)

.Binomial (scientific) nomenclature
•Gives each microbe 2 names:

monera** =eubacteria and archaea

Prokaryotes no nucleus ( class system)


Simple or primarily unicellular eukaryotes


eukaryotic decomposer, having cell wall, not photosynthetic


multicellular eukaryotes, muscular and nervous system


Multicellular eukaryotes, photosynthesis

Thhe 5 kingdom system forms monera which combines the eubacteria and archaea***

What is the difference between the five kingdom system and the six kingdom system?

the 5 kingdom combines Eubacteria and archaea to = monera

What is the difference between the five kingdom classification and six kingdom?


ancient bacteria lack peptidoglycan live in extreme enviroments (1 kingdom)


true bacteria


have a nucleus and organelles (4 kingdoms=protista, fungi, animalia, plantae)

all in all ways of classifying

•3 domains
•5 or 6 kingdoms
•2 cell types

Evolution - living things change gradually over millions of years

•Changes favoring survival are retained and less beneficial changes are lost.
•All new species originate from preexisting species.
•Closely related organism have similar features because they evolved from common ancestral forms.
•Evolution usually progresses toward greater

Craig Venter***

He created the first artificially designed organism by inserting a complete synthetic genome of bacterium Mycloplasma mycoides into Mycoplasma capricolum a goat bacterial pathogen that causes mastitis.

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