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microbiology Chapter 1

Menacing Microbes
Serve as infectious agents
Human diseases
Animal diseases
Plant diseases
•Do you think you are infected if these microbiota are found on your tongue?
disease results***
•When a pathogen overcomes the host's resistance,
How are microbes used as resources?***
•Solve environmental problems
-Degrade biodegradable materials
-Recycle nutrients in ecosystems on earth
•Solve agricultural problems
-Nitrogen fixation
-Food production
•Solve medical problems
-Drug, enzyme, vaccine
both beneficial and harmful***
•Microbes are
C.more harmful than beneficial
D.more beneficial than harmful
E.both beneficial and harmful
•Living organisms too small to be seen with naked eye
Microorganisms include:
Scopes of microbiology***
•Public health
•Food microbiology
•Agricultural microbiology
•Industrial microbiology
•Genetic engineering
antigen and antibody reaction
the microorganism in immunizations
stuff produced from self/ body inside
how the disease spreads
uses enzymes use microorganisms as a vector=cell
no,*** antibacterial products produce a mutant bug. Regular use of antibacterial cleaning products produces/promotes antibiotic resistant mutant
Advertisements tell you that bacteria and viruses are all over your home and that you need to buy antibacterial cleaning products. Should you?
antibacterial products produce a mutant bug.*** Regular use of antibacterial cleaning products produces/promotes antibiotic resistant mutant
What is consequence for regular use of antibacterial cleaning products?
Not true***
Is the comment you see in the commercial true or not?
-Only a dead germ is a good germ!
Where are microorganisms found?
no sterilized = germ free**
•Can you find microorganisms in
-the sterilized environment?
not suppose to have germs
Can you find microorganisms in
-closed circulatory system?
no nucleus (All bacteria has no membrane bound oraganelles
has nulceus
Rapid reproduction
What attributes of bacteria are important for research?
Viruses are not living organisms
viruses are living entities
virus, viroid,prion
viruses that are living entities include
infect humans draws greater attention
peice of tiny, infects plants, citrus disease, cownut dunk (disease would make cocunuts fall at night)
a mutated pr protein. Can go anywhere. Ex mad cow disease
Most microorganisms are ____________/__________
non-disease causing agent**
Free living species refers to
•Anton van Leeuwenhoek***
-Dutch linen merchant
-First one invented microscope
-First one to see bacterial cells
-Farther of bacteriology and protozoology
Francesco Redi
-One of the first people to doubt the spontaneous generation theory
-His and related experiments partially disproved the idea of spontaneous generation
-His experiments did not convince many scientists that simpler organisms such as microorganisms could arise this way
Louis Pasteur***
-Invented pasteurization
-Finally disproved abiogenesis
-Completed some of the first studies in Germ Theory of Disease
Robert Koch***
Perfected germ theory of disease
-Established postulates
- postulates are the cornerstone of the germ theory of disease
Germ theory of disease
Theory that germs cause the disease
abiogenesis theory/
spontaneous generation
early stage theory that all things come from non living organism {(trash created rats/worms. or meat produced worms)later disproved}
Koch's Postulates
1.Isolate the organism from every case
2.Propagate in pure culture in vitro
3.Reproduce disease by injecting the organism into a suitable recipient
4.Re-isolate the organism
Kochs postulate
symptom>isolation>culture>re-inoculate>symptom(see if this culture produces symptom again
Corolus Linnaeus***
Originated the idea of classifying organisms according to a hierarchy of increasingly restrictive levels or taxa
-Standardized binomial system of nomenclature
Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom***
Biogenesis theory**
living organisms come from living organisms
Abiogenesis theory/spontaneous generation theory
theory of living organisms coming from non living organisms (meat produces maggots, leter disproved)
spontaneous generation**
early belief that living things arose from vital forces presentin nonliving and decomposing matter.
a possible explanation/educated guess
making observations*******
Steps of proving a hypothesis in inductive approach begin with
A. formulating a hypothesis.
B. testing hypothesis.
C. making observations.
D. consulting prior knowledge.
formulating a hypothesis***
Steps proving hypothesis in deductive approach
A. formulating a hypothesis.
B. testing hypothesis.
C. making observations.
D. consulting prior knowledge.
Steps to proving a hypothesis****
1. making observation (inductive approach)
2. Formulating Hypothesis (deductive approach)
3.test hypothesis
4. collect data
5. Interpret data
6. Draw conclusion
7.Scientific theory
The formal filing systemm scientists use to classify living things.
C establishin kingdom is not included***
Taxonomic system has three primary functions excpet
AClassification B Nomenclature C. establishing kingdom D identifying species
classification, nomenclature, identification of species
What are the three primary functions of the taxonomic system?
orderly arrangement of organisms into groups
assigning names
discovering and recording traits of organisms for placement into taxonomic schemes
Genus - noun, always capitalized**
**-species - adjective, lowercase
•Both italicized or underlinedStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)
-Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis)
-Escherichia coli (E. coli)
-Homo sapiens (H. sapiens)
.Binomial (scientific) nomenclature
•Gives each microbe 2 names:
monera** =eubacteria and archaea
Prokaryotes no nucleus ( class system)
Simple or primarily unicellular eukaryotes
eukaryotic decomposer, having cell wall, not photosynthetic
multicellular eukaryotes, muscular and nervous system
Multicellular eukaryotes, photosynthesis
Thhe 5 kingdom system forms monera which combines the eubacteria and archaea***
What is the difference between the five kingdom system and the six kingdom system?
the 5 kingdom combines Eubacteria and archaea to = monera
What is the difference between the five kingdom classification and six kingdom?
ancient bacteria lack peptidoglycan live in extreme enviroments (1 kingdom)
true bacteria
have a nucleus and organelles (4 kingdoms=protista, fungi, animalia, plantae)
all in all ways of classifying
•3 domains
•5 or 6 kingdoms
•2 cell types
Evolution - living things change gradually over millions of years
•Changes favoring survival are retained and less beneficial changes are lost.
•All new species originate from preexisting species.
•Closely related organism have similar features because they evolved from common ancestral forms.
•Evolution usually progresses toward greater
Craig Venter***
He created the first artificially designed organism by inserting a complete synthetic genome of bacterium Mycloplasma mycoides into Mycoplasma capricolum a goat bacterial pathogen that causes mastitis.