APUSH Chapter 10
Terms in this set (30)
Native American Party
Was the first of secrect societies to combat the "alien menace." This was the Native American Association, and was founded in 1837, and only became known as this in 1845.
Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
In 1850, the Native American Party joined with other nativists to form this. The demands of this group included banning Catholics of aliens to holding public office, enacting more restrictive naturealization laws, and establishing literacy tests for voting. This order adopted a strict code of secrecy, which included a secret password: "I know nothing." The members of this group came to be known as the "Know-nothings."
After the election of 1852, this group created a new politcial organization that they called the American Party. It had an immediate success in the election of 1854. They did well in P.A. and N.Y. and actually won control of the govt. in Massachusetts. Outside the northeast, their progress was modest. After 1854, their strength declined and the party soon disapeared.
The first canal built that was between the Hudson River and Lake Erie and, in that time, was the biggest consrtuction projects Americans had ever undertaken. The canal itself was a simple ditch forty feet wide and four feet deep, with towpaths along the banks for the horses or mules that were used to draw the canal boats. Its consruction involved hundreds of difficult cuts and fills to enable the canal to pass through hills, over valleys, stone aqueducts to carry it across streams, and eighty-eight locks, of heavy masonry with great wooden gates, to permit ascents and descents. It opened in October 1825 and gave New York access to the great lakes and Chicago. This also contributed to the decline of agriculture in New England because people in the West could easily ship their goods to the east, so New Englanders couldn't keep up.
In 1820, he ran a locomotive and cars around a circular track on his New Jersey estate. This was an experiment with steam engines propelling land vehicles.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
The first company to begin actual road operations, which opened a thirteen mile stretch of track in 1830.
A professor of art with an interest in science who, in 1832, began experimenting with a different system invloving electricity. He wanted to find a way to send signals along an electric cable. He realized that electricity itself could be a communication device with pulses of electricity that could be some kind of language. He first tried with numbers, then thought there should be a more universal language, so he developed what became known as Morse Code. For Morse Code alternating long and short bursts of electricity would indicate individual letters.
Western Union Telegraph Company
In 1860 all independent telegraph lines had joined under one organization, known as this and, as the telegraph spread rapidly across Europe, in 1866 the first transatlantic cable was laid across the Atlantic.
When the telegraph system allowed the exchange of national and international news to be shared by different newspapers, in 1846, newspaper publishers from around the nation formed to create an organization to promote cooperative news gathering by wire.
In 1846, he invented the steam cylinder rotary press, making it possible to print newspapers much more rapidly and cheaply than had been possible in the past. Among other things, the rotary press spurred the dramatic growth of mass- circulation newspapers.
New York Sun
Was the most widely circulated paper in the nation, had 8,000 readers in 1834. By 1860, its successful rival the New York Herald, who was benifiting from the speed and economies of production the rotery press made possible, had a circulation of 77,000.
This system involved individual stockholders who risked losing only the value of their own investment if a corporation should fail, as opposed to being responsible for the corporation's larger losses as they had been in the past.
A method of producing goods that brought workers and machinery together in one place under one roof.
In 1839, this New England hardware merchant, discovered a method of vulcanizing rubber, which was treating it to give it greater strength and elasticity, and by 1860, his process had found over 500 uses and had helped create a major American rubber industry.
Elias Howe and Isaac Singer
In 1846, Howe of Massachusetts invented the sewing machine and Singer made improvments on it. The Howe-Singer machine was soon being used in the manufacture of ready-to-wear clothing.
Also known as the Waltham System, it was common in Massachusetts, this system enlisted young women, mostly farmers' daughters in their late teens and early twenties, many of these women worked for several years in the factories, saved their wages, and then returned home to marry and raise children. Others married men they met in factories of towns. Most eventually stopped working in the mills and took up domestic roles instead.
The Lowell Offering
This was a monthly magazine published by women who worked in factories.
Factory Girls Association
In 1834, mill workers in Lowell organized a union known as this, which staged a strike to protest a 25 percent wage cut. Two years later the association struck again, against a rent increase in boardinghouses. Both Strikes failed, and a recession in 1837 nearly killed the organization.
Led the Lowell women eight years after the Factory Girls Association failed, and formed the Female Labr Reform Association. They began agitating for ten hour days and improvments in the conditions of the mills. They also turned to state govt. and asked for legislative investigation of conditions in the mills.
National Trades' Union
This was founded in 1834 by delegates of six cities, and in 1836, printers and cordwainers (makers of high quality shoes and boots) set up their own national craft unions.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
The greatest legal victory of industrial workers that came in Massachusetts in 1842. In this case the Supreme Court declared that unions were lawful organizations and that the strike was a lawful weapon. Other states gradually accepted the principles of this desicion, but employers continued to resist.
Invention that improved middle class homes and began to replace fireplaces as the principle vehical for cooking in the 1840s. These wood or coal burning devices were hot, clumsy, and dirty by the standards of the twentieth century. But the dangers were significantly lower than an open fire so this was a great luxery. It also gave more control to the preparation of the food and allowed cooks to cook more than one thing at a time.
Cult of Domesticity
The tradition that housework and child care were considered the only proper activites for married women and that the men belonged in the workplace.
This college in 1837, in Ohio, was the first to accept and educate both men and women.
Founded the first acadamy for women in 1837 called Mt. Holyoke. Mt Holyoke was located in Massachusetts.
The Sentimental Novel
Women were particularly avid readers, and many women writers created a new genre of fiction specifically for females, known as this, which often offered idealized visions of women's lives and romances.
When white actors wearing blackface mimicked (and ridiculed) African American culture, became increasingly popular.
P. T. Barnum
Open the American Museum in New York in 1842, this wasnt a showcase for art or nature, but a great freak show populated by midgets, Siamese twins, magicians, and ventriloquists. He was a genius in publicizing his ventures with garish posters and elebrate nrespaper announcments. Later in the 1870s he launched the famous circus.
Cast Iron Plows
Used a lot in farming and remained popular because it had interchangable parts. But when a better tool appeared in 1847, they were soon to be old news. This new tool was established in Moline, Illinois by John Deere whose facotory now manufactured steel plows, which were much more durable than those made of iron.
Cyrus H. McCormick
From Virginia, invented the automatic reaper, which took the place of sickle, cradle, and hand labor. It was pulled by a team of horses and enabled a crew of six or seven men to harvest in a day as much wheat as fifteen men could harvest using their older methods. He patented his device in 1834, and had a factory in Chicago for it in 1847. Another usefall farming invention was the Thresher, which was a machine that separated the grain from the wheat stalks. The Jerome I. Case factory in Racine, Wisconson, manufactured most of the threshers. Later on the functions of these two machines were combined.