23 terms

American Government: Roots and Reform - Chapter Twelve


Terms in this set (...)

political party
an organized effort by office holders, candidates, activists, and voters to pursue their common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process
governmental party
the office holders who organize themselves and pursue policy objectives under a party label
organizational party
the workers and activists who make up the party's formal organization structure
party in the electorate
the voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party
political machine
a party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
direct primary
the selection of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters rather than at party nominating conventions
civil service laws
these acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition
issue-oriented politics
politics that focuses on specific issues rather than on party, candidate, or other loyalties
to vote for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
candidate-centered politics
politics that focuses directly on the candidates, their particular issues, and character, rather than on party affiliation
party realignment
a shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections
critical election
an election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues
secular realignment
the gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system
a group made of interests or organizations that join forces for the purpose of electing public officials
national party platform
a statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention
proportional representation
a voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular political party
winner-take-all system
an electoral system in which the party that receives at least one more vote than any other party wins the election
national convention
a party meeting held in the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential ticket and adopting a platform
think tank
institutional collection of policy-oriented researchers and academies who are sources of policy ideas
soft money
the virtually unregulated money funneled through political parties for party-building purposes, such as get out the vote efforts or issue ads; banned after 2002
hard money
funds that can be used for direct electioneering but are limited and regulated by the Federal Elections Commission
party identification
a citizen's personal affinity for a political party, usually expressed by a tendency to vote for the candidates of that party
a general decline in party identification and loyalty in the electorate