18 terms

American Government: Roots and Reform - Chapter Sixteen

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civic virtue
the tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good
collective good
something of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember of a group, for example, a tax write-off for a better environment
disturbance theory
the theory that interest groups form in part to counteract the efforts of other groups
earmark
funds that an appropriations bill designates for a particular purpose within a state or congressional district
economic interest group
a group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members
free rider problem
potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing the effort
Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007
lobbying reform banning gifts to members of Congress and their staffs, toughening disclosure requirements, and increasing time limits on moving from the federal government to the private sector
interest group
an organized group that tries to influence public policy
lobbying
the activities of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support the group's position
lobbyist
interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his or her organization or client through political persuasion
patron
a person who finances a group or individual activity
pluralist theory
the theory that political power is distributed among a wide array of diverse and competing interest groups
political action committee
federally regulated, officially registered fund-raising committee that represents interest groups in the political process
population ecology theory
the theory that the life of a political organization is conditional on the density and diversity of the interest group population in a given area
public interest group
an organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit group members
social capital
the myriad relationships that individuals enjoy that facilitate the resolution of community problems through collective action
trade association
a group that represents a specific industry
transactions theory
the theory that public policies are the result of narrowly defined exchanges among political actors
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