processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships.
Cognitive Theory of Development
the theory that children's thought progresses through four stages of development.
1.) Sensorimotor Stage
2.) Preoperational Stage
3.) Concrete Operational Stage
4.) Formal Operational Stage
an aspect of the socialization process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals.
a view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers.
expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior.
the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences.
Life Course Approach
a research orientation in which sociologists and other social scientists look closely at the social factors that influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death.
the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life.
the process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint.
an individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as a parent, friend, or teacher.
the lifelong process through which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.
an institution that regulates all aspects of a person's life under a single authority, such as a prison, the military, a mental hospital, or a convent.
Which social scientist used the phrase "Looking-Glass Self" to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with other people?
Charles Horton Cooley
In what he called the "Play Stage" of socialization, George Herbert Mead asserted that people mentally assume the perspectives of others, thereby enabling them to respond from that imagined viewpoint. This process is referred to as _______.
Suppose a clerk tries to appear busier than he or she actually is when a supervisor happens to be watching. Erving Goffman would study this behavior from what approach?
According to child psychologist Jean Piaget's Cognitive Theory of Development, children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas during which stage in the development of the thought process?
The Pre-Operational Stage
On the first day of Basic Training in the US Army, a recruit has his civilian clothes replaced by Army Greens, has his hair shaved off, loses his privacy, and finds that he must use a communal bathroom. All these humiliating activities are part of _____.
A Degradation Ceremony
Which social institution is considered to be the most important agent of socialization in the US, especially for children?
The term "Gender Role" refers to
Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
Which sociological perspective emphasizes that schools in the US foster competition through built-in systems of reward and punishment?
The Conflict Perspective
________ is the term used by Sociologists in referring to the lifelong process whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.
In everyday speech, the term _____ is used to refer to a person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.
Studies of twins raised apart suggest that ______ and ________ influence human development.
A _____ ______ is an individual such a parent, friend, or teacher, who is most important in the development of the self.
Early work in _______, such as that by Sigmund Freud, stressed the role of inborn drives - among them sexual gratification - in channeling human behavior.
Preparation for many aspects of adult life begins with ______ socialization during childhood and adolescence, and continues throughout our lives as we prepare for new responsibilities.
The ______ perspective emphasizes the role of schools in teaching the values and customs of the larger society.