Semester 2 Final
Describe the 3 Reconstruction Amendments.
13th - Abolished Slavery, 14th - African American Citizenship, 15th - African American male voting rights
What were the problems with sharecropping/the crop lien system?
Increased the number of renters of farmland.
Increased the dependency of cash crop or lack of crop diversity
Increased the amount of dept among the renters
How did Southern redeemers prevent freedmen equality?
Jim Crow Laws
What impact did Plessy v Ferguson have on the South?
It confirmed the legalization of segregation with "separate but equal".
What was Andrew Carnegie's monopoly and how did he obtain it?
Steel and Vertical Integration - buy the companies to help make your product, allowing you to sell your product at a cheaper price.
What was John D. Rockefeller's monopoly and how did he obtain it?
Oil and Horizontal Integration - buy out/eliminate the competition
What factors lead to the growth of American Industrialization?
Immigrants, Technology, Free Enterprise government policy, abundance of natural resources, Social Darwinism
Describe the principles of Capitalism.
Free Enterprise, Laissez Faire, Social Darwinism, Private Business Ownership
How did Industrialization change everyday life in the 1800s?
Improved technology, Faster transportation, better pay, more leisure time.
Why did Urbanization develop in the late 19th century?
African Americans moving from the South;
Farmers looking for industrial work;
Improved technology for Industrialization;
New Immigration looking for new opportunities.
What problems existed with urbanization?
Poorly built tenements;
Trash/sewage and disease
What role did political machines have on the cities?
They appealed to the immigrant vote in order to win elections, as well as using voter fraud, graft, and kickbacks.
Why did the Homestead Act of 1862 help settle the West?
Gave anyone 160 acres of land as long as that person could stay on it for 5 years.
What led to the end of the cowboy way of life?
Ranches began decline due to the closure of the great plains with the use of barbed wire from settling homesteaders.
Describe the characteristics of a cowboy.
A young man from various races/cultures who led very tough and demanding life that often resulted in a short career.
What mostly lead to the decline of the Native American culture on the Great Plains?
Annihilation of the buffalo
How were Native Americans assimilated?
Education on the Reservations
Why was the Dawes Act a failure?
Native Americans had no desire to bread up their cultural tradition by owning 160 acres of land and becoming farmers. Instead, many sold their land to white settlers.
What Native American conflicts were seen as vicious acts of brutality committed by white soldiers?
What event caused the Spanish-American War?
Explosion of the USS Maine
What role did the media have on this war?
They used yellow journalism to push the American population to war with Spain.
What territories did the U.S. gain from the Spanish-American War?
Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam
Who did Teddy Roosevelt lead in the victory at San Juan Hill?
Why would the United States want to become an Empire?
New markets and Raw Materials
Power and Prestige
Why was Hawaii annexed?
Naval Port Location
Sugar Cane and other agricultural products
Why was the purchase of Alaska known as Seward's Folly?
Many felt that Alaska wasn't a valuable piece of land, just a frozen waste land.
How would the Panama Canal help American Imperialism?
Two Ocean Navy
Faster Trade Route
What was the Purpose of the Progressive Movement?
Fix America's problems: corrupt politics, urbanization, monopolies, mistreatment of minorities, etc
How is the 17th Amendment considered a Progressive Movement amendment?
It fought corrupt government by giving more power to the voters with the direct election of senators.
What was the purpose of the 18th and 21st Amendments?
18th - Prohibition of alcohol (Progressive amendment)
21st - Repeal of the 18th Amendment
How is the 19th Amendment a Progressive Amendment?
Gave women the right to vote.
What events brought the United States into World War I?
Sinking of the Lusitania
Violation of the Sussex Pledge
What was the intent of the League of Nations
Punish Germany with the War Guilt Clause, pay war reparations, dismantle their empire and military
Why did the U.S. not join the League of Nations?
The Senate rejected it because they felt it was not a proper method of maintaining world peace.
Cite examples of citizen sacrifice on the WWI home front.
Food rationing, liberty gardens, victory bonds,
What helped create the economical boom during the Roaring 20's?
Technological innovation of mass production, Business friendly government policies, Disposable income, Advertising, Planned Obsolescence
What events were a part of the 1920's Nativist Movement?
Immigration Act of 1924
Rise of the KKK
What was the significance in the Harlem Renaissance?
It gave African Americans a voice in the fine arts.
What caused the stock market crash of 1929?
The business cycle began to enter a bear market, causing stock prices to decline. Investors panicked and began to rapidly sell their stock.
What factor created a false sense of economic security during the 1920's?
Consumers bought on installment plans, eventually creating a credit crisis/consumer debt.
What were the 6 causes of the Great Depression?
Stock Market crash, bank failure, business failure, global depression, credit crisis/consumer debt, income gap
Why was Hoover criticized during the Great Depression?
His "trickle down" effect did not provide immediate aid to those effected by the depression.
What was the main goal of the New Deal?
Get the United States out of the depression.
What were the causes and effects of the Dust Bowl?
Causes - over farming, drought, strong winds
Effects - Mass exodus from the Great Plains to California for migrant farming jobs
How did the New Deal help with the Great Depression?
It improved employment, providing families with disposable income, and improving the overall confidence of Americans.
Why did some criticize the New Deal?
Set up a welfare state,
Too much government involvement in economics
Created deficit spending
Why was Rosie the Riveter the symbol of women during World War II?
It encouraged women to take over men's industrial jobs to keep the war machine moving.
Why did the Supreme Court declare Japanese Interment Camps constitutional?
Japanese-American citizens could be potential spies, and it was an act of security for the U.S. homefront
What major advantage did the United States have after the attack at Pearl Harbor?
Our wartime industrial production was far superior that the Axis Powers.
What was the significance of the D-Day invasion?
Attacked the beaches of Normandy by land and air liberating France and pushing the Germans east.
Surrounded the Nazis in Europe
What strategy was used to defeat the Japanese in the Pacific?
What were the Pros and Cons to Truman's decision to drop the atomic bomb?
Pros - end the war, save lives, display power to the Soviets
Cons - Civilians attacked, don't know the long term effects
Describe the US/USSR relationship during World War II?
Always a lack of trust existed during the war, and they would become enemies by the end of the war.
What was the Cold War?
A series of political, economic, military, and technological competitive events that lasted over 4 decades.
What were some major events that occurred during the Cold War?
Berlin Wall, Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis, U2, Korean War, Vietnam War
Why was the Berlin Wall the symbol of the Cold War?
It was the physical barrier that actually separated capitalism and communism.
What event was seen as the symbolic end of the Cold War?
The fall of the Berlin Wall
How developed due the construction of Interstate highways?
Increased development of suburban communites
What is the significance of the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
Put the voter registration under federal control, leading to increased voter registration for African Americans
What did Brown v Board of Education do?
Repealed the Plessy v Fersguson ruling by desegregating public schools.
What was the goal of the Freedom Summer campaign?
Get African Americans in the South registered to vote.
Why was Freedom Summer considered unsuccessful?
Historical fear from African Americans and the murder of 3 Freedom Summer volunteers.
Why did the U.S. get involved in Vietnam?
Stop the spread of Communism from North Vietnam to South Vietnam.
What did some U.S. soldiers do to overcome their difficulties in Vietnam?
Drugs and alcohol
Why was the Tet Offensive seen at the turning point of the Vietnam War?
It increased opposition on the US Homefront by revealing that Viet Cong were far from surrendering.
What caused the energy crisis of '73?
OPEC oil embargo
What was Nixon's plan to end the war in Vietnam?
Why did Nixon resign as President?
He would have been impeached for his involvement in the Watergate scandal.
What was Reagan's plan to boost the economy in the early 80s?
Cutting taxes and deregulating the federal government.
Why did critics (Democrats) can Reagan's plan "Reagonomics"?
They this plan only helped the wealthy, leaving the lower classes with very little support.
Why did the U.S. fight Iraq in the Persian Gulf War?
Iraq invaded the oil rich country of Kuwait.