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Trypanosomes and Kin
Terms in this set (81)
Are Trypanosomes responsible fro Nagana, Surra, African sleeping sickness, chagas disease, and canine leishmaniasis?
Nonpathogenic trypanosomes have been described in ____, _____, and ______?
cervids, cattle, sheep
Is it true that African grasslands cannot support domestic livestock b/c of trypanosomes?
Does Cryptobia infect freshwater and marine fishes in the blood, intestine, gills, and on the surface, and boldfacing leaches are implicated in the transmission?
How do Trypanosomes avoid recognition or elude defenses by continuously developing new antigenic types?
How many genes encode Trypanosomes coat?
What shape is Trypanosome?
elongated spindle shape
How many nucleus's does Trypanosome have and where is it located?
Does Trypanosome have flagellum?
Does the flagellum on Trypanosome vary in length and may sometime be non-protruding?
Where does the flagellum arise from?
The flagellum forms a whip-like organelle and is positioned where?
Does flagellum propel the organism?
What kind of membrane does the flagellum have?
What is a kinetoplast?
large mitochondria with lots of DNA
how many morphological stages are there?
What are the 3 stages of morphology called?
Trypomastigote, amastigote, promastigote
Which morphological stage has an anterior flagellum and a posterior kinetoplast and kinetosome?
Which morphological stage has a spheroid body with a short flagellum?
what morphological stage has an anterior function flagellum, no undulating membrane and the kinetoplast and kinetosome are situated anteriorly?
Is Trypanosome heteroxenous (needs at least 2 hosts)?
Trypanosome is transmitted by blood-feeding ______ and _____?
tsetse flies and arthropods
Is it true that some species of Trypanosome have all stages but others have only some?
If the protozoan develops in the anterior portion of the digestive tract of the vector and is transmitted by the bite of the insect, development is called what?
If the protozoan develops in the hind portion of the insect and is transmitted by insect fecal contamination, development is called what?
T. vivax, T. congolense (lack free flagellum), and T. brucei are causative agents that cause what?
Nagana is a tsetse fly-transmited disease of ______ and ____?
antelopes (west africa) and cattle (africa and south america)
What disease is characterized by weight loss, lethargy, weakness, clumsiness, anemia, and death?
Is it true that T. viva has spread to south america and uses tabbing flies as vectors instead of tsetse flies?
Trypanosoma evansi causes what?
Is T. evansi indistinguishable from T. brucei and why?
yes, because it developed from it
What does T. Evansi lack?
Because T. Evansi lacks a kinetoplast the arthropod vector can only _____ transfer the blood form to the vertebrate host?
Can T. Evansi cause fever, anemia, anorexia, weight loss, cachexia, and death?
What are 2 mechanical vectors of T. Evansi?
horse flies and deer flies
What 3 places is T. Evansi endemic to?
Africa, Asia, and latin America
How fatal is T. Evansi in horses and other animals that are untreated?
Suramine and quinapyramine sulfate are used to treat what disease in animals?
Are immunosuppresed people at risk for many animal trypansomal disease?
Trypanosoma gambiense causes what?
Chronic African sleeping sickness
How many stages of African sleeping sickness are there in animals?
4 (interstitial inflammation of the skin, parasitemia, lymphadenitis, and CNS involvement)
If Chronic African sleeping sickness is untreated, can it cause somnolence and death?
T. Gambiense is generally restricted to ____ ____ of west and central Africa?
T. Gambiense is vectored by what?
riverine tsetse flies
What animal is a reservoir for T. Gambiense?
Does T. Gambians cause a Trypanosomal chancre (sore at inoculation site)?
When do tsetse flies feed?
during the day
What does Trypanosome Rhodesiense cause?
acute african sleeping sickness
Do somnolence and protracted nervous disorders occur in T. Rhodesiense?
A victim of T. Rhodesiense will dies with in what?
T. Rhodesiense is restricted to dry savanna of east and central ___?
How do tsetse flies transmit T. Rhodesiense?
reservoirs of T. Rhodesiense include what?
native game animals of africa
Trypanosoma Cruzi cause what in dogs and humans?
Does T. Cruzi have acute and chronic stages?
T. Cruzi involves nervous tissue and forms pseudocysts (amastigote) in where?
What Trypanosoma causes dogs to present with apathy and depression, pale MM, weak pulses, swollen LN, arrhythmia and cardiac insufficiency, anorexia, myocarditis, and sudden death due to heart failure?
in T. Cruzi, amastigotes ____ divide to pseudocysts in cardiac tissue?
In T. Cruzi are amastigotes released periodically and eventually are metamorphosed into trypomastigotes?
Once T. Cruzi turns into a trypomastigote, does another triatomid bug have to ingest it during blood meal to complete its lifecycle?
T. Cruzi is a latin disease but has been reported in ____ and ___?
texas and Arizona
Is the vector of T. Cruzi transmitted anteriorly or posteriorly?
Who is the vector of T. Cruzi?
reduviid or kissing bug
Where does the kissing bug bite the dog in order to transfer T. Cruzi?
near the lips
Can T. Cruzi also be transmitted transplacentally?
What are 2 reservoirs for T. Cruzi ?
armadillos and opossums
L. infantum, L. Chagasi, and L. Donovani all cause what?
In canine leishmaniasis promastigoTes are transmitted by the bite of what in the endemic areas?
is canine leishmaniasis and obligate intracellular parasite?
in canine leishmaniasis where does the promastigote become an amastigote?
canine leishmaniasis causes visceral dissemination with damage to the what?
What parasite causes weight loss, muscle atrophy, dermatitis, thickening of the skin on the nose, and cutaneous ulcerative lesions?
Can canine leishmaniasis cause death if untreated?
Do sand flies feed at night and during the day?
Can cats and rodents also be infected by canine leishmaniasis ?
Does canine leishmaniasis cause dermotropic and viscerotriphic disease in dogs?
Is canine leishmaniasis more common in the mediterranean basin?
yes (but has been documented in the US)
What type of sandflies are usually the vectors of canine leishmaniasis?
Can canine leishmaniasis be transmitted from dog to dog by direct contamination with blood and body secretions?
Can canine leishmaniasis be transmitted transplacentally?
Can you treat canine leishmaniasis with sodium stibogluconate?
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