EOCT- Physical Science- Energy, Force, and Motion Practice MC
Terms in this set (55)
Tom is working on calorimetry experiments. What is Tom studying?
A softball is thrown and is hit high into the air. As it rises, the softball possesses
A. only kinetic energy.
B. only potential energy.
C. both potential and kinetic energy.
D. potential, kinetic, and electromagnetic energy.
Which of the following choices best describes an object's velocity?
A. The bus traveled at 50 mph for 20 minutes.
B. The airplane traveled southwest at 280 mph.
C. The car went from 35 mph to 45 mph.
D. The train made several stops, with an average rate of 57 mph.
5. A rock dropped from a cliff has greater kinetic energy just before it reaches the ground than it did at the top of the cliff. Which of the following explains this fact?
A. The rock's mass decreases as it falls.
B. Falling has increased the rock's total energy.
C. The rock's potential gravitational energy has been converted into kinetic energy.
D. Chemical analysis will reveal that the rock's chemical energy has been consumed.
An astronaut on the moon drops a feather and a rock from the same height. They reach the ground at the same time. Why does this happen on the moon but NOT on Earth?
A. The moon has no atmosphere.
B. The moon's weaker gravity pulls each with less force.
C. Objects dropped on Earth are not influenced by lunar gravity.
D. On Earth, the rock has more mass due to Earth's stronger gravity.
The transfer of heat energy by heat traveling through a metal is known as
Heat travels through liquids by
Heat may be transferred through a vacuum by
A toaster browns bread by converting
A. electric energy to heat energy.
B. heat energy to electric energy.
C. mechanical energy to heat energy.
D. chemical energy to electric energy.
Heat energy transferred by conduction will travel best through
D. a vacuum.
The work output of a machine is less than the work input. What factor causes this?
Two objects of equal mass, a feather and a Ping-Pong ball, are dropped in a vacuum. Which of the following will occur?
A. The objects will not fall in a vacuum.
B. The object with greater weight will fall faster.
C. The feather and ping pong ball will fall at the same rate.
D. The ping pong ball will fall faster due to its spherical shape.
What would be the most realistic body shape for a science fiction character from a massive planet with strong gravitational attraction?
A. squat and sturdy
C. tall and thin-boned
D. birdlike with strong flight muscles
Which of the following situations best illustrates the principle of inertia?
A. Steve throws a ball straight up and notices it slowing down.
B. Emily asks for a push to get started on a swing.
C. Paula decides to sit in an outside seat of a merry-go-round so that she will have a wilder ride.
D. When Dave drops a bowling ball, it does not bounce as high as a basketball dropped from the same height.
Which is the best heat conductor?
Which of the following is the best scientific definition of work?
A. effort multiplied by distance
B. the conversion of energy from one form to another
C. a force being exerted over time
D. a force moving an object over a distance
A person sitting in front of a fireplace feels what type of heat energy?
A. convection energy
B. conduction energy
C. solar energy
D. radiation energy
Thermal (heat) energy always flows from
A. gas to a liquid.
B. a liquid to a solid.
C. a warmer region to a cooler region.
D. a freezing material to a boiling material.
In an air-conditioned house, double glass windows and fiberglass insulation both have a similar ability to transmit heat. These substances serve to
A. prevent heat transfer due to their high thermal conductivity.
B. prevent heat transfer due to their low thermal conductivity.
C. allow heat transfer due to their high thermal conductivity.
D. allow heat transfer due to their low thermal conductivity.
To prevent heat loss through house windows, which is the most environmentally efficient option?
A. a double thickness of glass
B. two panes of glass separated by air
C. two panes of glass separated by a space to which extra air has been added
D. two panes of glass separated by a space from which the air has been removed
The sides of a sailboat slant sharply to help the boat move through the water. The boat itself acts as what type of simple machine?
A. a wedge
B. a pulley
C. a screw
D. an inclined plane
Anne-Marie is using a fixed pulley to raise a weight. How does using the pulley change her effort?
A. It reduces the effort needed to raise the weight.
B. It changes the direction of the effort but doesn't reduce it.
C. It increases the effort needed to raise the weight.
D. It both reduces and changes the direction of the effort.
Many public buildings now have entrance ramps in addition to entrance stairs. Which principle explains the idea behind entrance ramps?
A. By increasing the distance, the required force decreases.
B. By increasing the distance, the required force increases.
C. By increasing the force, the required distance decreases.
D. By increasing the force, the required distance increases.
How does the effort used to lift a load with a second-class lever compare to the effort used to lift the same load with a first-class lever?
A. The second-class lever requires more effort.
B. The first-class lever requires more effort.
C. The effort required is the same for both types of levers.
D. The effort depends on the type of load, rather than the type of lever.
In which of the following situations does a stone have the greatest kinetic energy?
A. a stone at a cliff's edge
B. a stone falling from a cliff
C. a stone lying at the bottom of a cliff
D. a person carrying a stone up a mountain
The sun's heat reaches Earth by what means?
Every person uses energy stored in the fat cells of his or her body. This stored energy is in the form of
A. heat energy.
B. nuclear energy.
C. chemical energy.
D. mechanical energy.
One autumn day, Ethan was sitting under a tree. He repeatedly got hit on the head and shoulders by falling acorns. He looked up at the huge oak tree and thought, "This is so much like the story of Sir Isaac Newton and the apple tree." According to the story, what had Newton discovered?
B. E = mc2
D. conservation of energy
Choose the statement or situation which best demonstrates the relationship between force and work.
A. Force is work divided by time.
B. Work is force multiplied by distance.
C. Work multiplied by force equals power.
D. The greater the work, the more time needed to apply force.
A hang glider is able to sail through the air on warm winds which are heated by Earth's surface. This best illustrates one use of which principle of heat transfer?
D. solar transfer
Which of the following BEST describes why someone may NOT be able to lift a full wheelbarrow by its handles?
A. The effort force is not great enough to raise the fulcrum.
B. The resistance force is not great enough to raise the fulcrum.
C. The resistance force is not great enough to overcome the effort force.
D. The effort force is not great enough to overcome the resistance force.
Which of the following always has an effect on both static and sliding friction?
A. the speed of the objects in contact
B. the velocity of the objects in contact
C. the force applied to the object at rest
D. the force pressing the objects together
If a particular substance is a good electrical insulator, then you can assume it probably
A. has no isotopes.
B. does not lose electrons easily.
C. is a liquid at room temperature.
D. is a compound, rather than an element.
Pat measures a small rubber ball and then makes three other balls of the same diameter from lead, foam, and wood.
Which ball has the greatest inertia?
A. the rubber ball
B. the lead ball
C. the foam ball
D. the wood ball
In a laboratory, a sealed container with 100 g of steam is cooled until all the steam becomes a liquid. The container is then cooled further until all the water becomes a solid.
Which of the following remains constant during both of these changes?
A. the mass of the water
B. the pressure in the container
C. the total energy of the water
D. the position of the atoms in the container
In a copper wire, a temperature increase is the result of which of the following?
A. an increase in the size of the copper particles
B. a decrease in the mass of the copper particles
C. an increase in the motion of the copper particles
D. a decrease in the distance between the copper particles
The water contained in a geyser system gains energy from the underground material surrounding it. The water molecules gain kinetic energy and this results in an increase in the pressure of the water. Eventually the geyser erupts and expels water into the air above ground.
Which of the following types of energy is the source for the initial energy gain of the water?
A student in a laboratory transfers a beaker containing a hot solution from the lab table to a cool water bath. Which of the following parts of the system experiences an increase in heat energy?
B. lab table
D. water bath
Which is an example of energy from chemical bonds being formed or broken transformed into energy of motion?
A. lighting a match
B. turning on a battery-operated toy car
C. pushing a button on the TV remote control
D. the wind turning the blades of a windmill
In a coal burning power plant, coal is burned to heat steam to turn a turbine. The turbine generates power that is sent to homes and businesses.
Order the energy transformations of the power plant.
A. chemical, mechanical, electrical
B. electrical, chemical, mechanical
C. All transform a form of energy into light energy.
D. mechanical, electrical, chemical
What do all of the processes listed here have in common?
sawing a piece of wood
lighting a match
turning on a light bulb
A. All transform into a form of energy from chemical energy.
B. All transform into a form of energy from electrical energy.
C. All transform a form of energy into light energy.
D. All transform a form of energy into heat energy.
In this type of heat transfer, no molecular motion is necessary. Heat can be transferred across large distances without any particles being present.
Many restaurants and kitchens use iron skillets to cook bacon, eggs, and biscuits for breakfast. A standard skillet has a mass of 850 g. When cooking bacon for breakfast the skillet starts at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. At the end of cooking, the temperature of the skillet reaches 120 degrees Celsius. The specific heat of iron is 0.45 J/(g°C).
Determine the heat energy gained by the iron skillet.
A. 4.03 J
B. 382.5 J
C. 36,337.5 J
D. 179,444.4 J
While driving on the highway, you take a look at your watch as you pass mile marker #242. Exactly 15 minutes later, you pass mile marker #260. What is your average speed?
A. 0.014 miles/hour
B. 17.3 miles/hour
C. 33.47 miles/hour
D. 72 miles/hour
Slamming on the brakes in a moving car makes a passenger move forward against his or her seat belt because
A. the passenger has the inertia to keep moving forward.
B. the passenger is being pushed by the seats of the car.
C. the passenger is better able to stop themselves in this manner.
D. the passenger has an equal and opposite force supporting their weight.
Which of these is an example of Newton's First Law, inertia?
A. pushing against a brick wall, and the brick wall does not move
B. pushing a stationary wheelbarrow, and the wheelbarrow accelerates forward
C. pushing a wheelbarrow full of bricks, and the bricks slide back toward the handles
D. pushing a wagon to the top of a hill, and the wagon accelerates down the hill without assistance
Which of these is an example of Newton's Second Law, F=ma?
A. a tug of war where the both sides pull equally, and the rope does not move
B. a wide receiver using his hands to stop and catch a football thrown by the quarterback at 20 m/s
C. a car traveling on a straight part of the highway with a cruise control set and a constant velocity of 55 miles/hour
D. a booster rocket on the Shuttle launching it to space
Which of these is true regarding weight but NOT mass?
A. Weight is based on density, mass is not.
B. Weight is proportional to volume, mass is not.
C. Weight changes based on inertia, mass does not.
D. Weight changes depending on distance from the earth, mass does not.
You pull a wagon with your younger sister in it. Which of these would accelerate the rate at which you can pull the wagon?
A. Pull the wagon with less force.
B. Pull the wagon with more force.
C. Have your sister push down on the wagon.
D. Put another of your siblings in the wagon.
A rotating water sprinkler has many arms which rapidly shoot water backward out of the ends, in response, the arms of the sprinkler
A. fall with the water.
B. are lifted as the water falls due to gravity.
C. move forward and, hence, rotate.
D. remain motionless due to inertia.
When a Civil War era canon is fired, the force of the gas produced by exploding powder propels the cannonball forward at a high speed. According to Newton's Third Law,
A. the cannon itself moves backward.
B. the cannon itself does not move due to inertia.
C. the cannon itself moves forward as well with the momentum.
D. the cannon itself moves forward with the inertia of the cannonball.
You accidentally drop a drinking glass. After the glass left your hand,
A. the inertia of the earth pulled the glass down.
B. gravity caused the glass to fall at a constant rate.
C. gravity caused the glass to fall faster and faster.
D. the equal and opposite forces of gravity and air resistance acted upon it.
Which of these experiences the greatest gravitational force if dropped from an airplane?
A. a 2 pound metal wrench
B. a 15 pound box of food and supplies
C. a 150 pound paratrooper with her parachute still closed
D. a 1500 pound jeep with an open parachute
As the space shuttle lifts off from Cape Canaveral and ascends into the atmosphere, its ______________ becomes less.
Solid magnesium has a specific heat of 1.01 J/g°C. How much heat is given off by a 20.0 gram sample of magnesium when it cools from 70.0°C to 50.0°C?
A. 202 J
B. 404 J
C. 808 J
D. 1010 J