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Ch. 25 Fluid and Electrolytes
Terms in this set (86)
In one form of metabolic acidosis, a build up of fixed acids causes the concentration of bicarbonate ions to do what?
Solutes can be divided into two categories: electrolytes and ________
Match the components of the bicarbonate buffer system:
weak acid --> H2CO3
weak base --> HCO3-
Fluid balance is maintained by the work of several organ systems working together. Which of the following systems is involved in fluid balance?
digestive, cardiovascular, and urinary
Which are common electrolytes found in body fluids?
Na+, Cl-, K+
If an acid is added to a solution, the concentration of H+ will ________, and the pH will ________
increase and decrease
Most calcium comes from the diet and is lost in ________, _______, and _______
urine, feces, and sweat
Match each chemical buffer system with its location:
Protein --> within cells and blood
phosphate --> within cells
bicarbonate --> within the blood
Metabolic acids which are derived from metabolic wastes are more commonly referred to as ______ acids
Magnesium ions are predominantly found where in the body?
bone and within cells
The percentage of fluid in the body is dependent on the age of the individual and the relative amounts of _______ connective tissue and _______ muscle tissue
adipose and skeletal
Respiratory alkalosis occurs when PCO2 levels are ______ than normal
A(n) ________ is any substances that dissociates in solution to form cations and anions
Match the components of the phosphate buffering system:
weak acid --> dihydrogen phosphate
weak base --> hydrogen phosphate
Hormones that play a major role in homeostatic regulation of both electrolytes and fluids include:
antidiuretic hormone, angiotensin II, and aldosterone
Which of the following are ways in which we lose fluid from the body?
breathing, sweating, and urinating
If an acid-base disturbance has occurred, which buffering systems are no longer capable of compensating for pH changes in the body?
Fluid sequestration differs from other fluid imbalances the total body fluid may be normal but it is distributed ___________
Carbonic acid is a _______ acid
The ECF has higher concentrations than the ICF of which of the following ions?
Ca2+, Cl-, & Na+
If your arterial blood pH drops below 7.35, you are said to be in a state of physiological ________
________ occurs when bicarbonate ion levels are above normal
Patients with a COPD, such as chronic bronchitis, cannot fully exhale causing their CO2 levels to increase. Because of this they are often in a state of respiratory _______
Imbalance in K+ levels in the plasma can lead to neuromuscular changes which can lead to _______ and respiratory arrest and death of the organism
The water in the body produced from aerobic cellular respiration is referred to as _______ water
Fluid imbalances can be organized into five categories including which of the following?
dehydration, fluid sequestration, and hypotonic hydration
Which of the following can serve as a protein buffer system?
intracellular proteins, hemoglobin in RBCs, and plasma proteins
An acid-base imbalance below 7.0 or above 7.7 will result in:
death within a few hours
______ is the most abundant electrolyte in bones and teeth
A chemical buffering system is composed of which of the following?
weak base and weak acid
All are correct statements about Cl- and its regulation except which one?
Cl- regulation is completely independent of Na+
The region of the brain that contains the thirst center is the:
Extracellular fluid includes ________ fluid and ______ _______
interstitial and blood plasma
The physiological roles of phosphate include which of the following?
component of phospholipids and with Ca2+, hardening of extracellular matrix
Systemic arterial blood should have a pH between:
7.35 and 7.45
Metabolic acidosis occurs when aterial blood levels of:
bicarbonate ion fall below normal
An increase in which of the following would ultimately or directly result in a decrease in fluid output by the kidneys?
ADH, aldosterone, and renin
Insulin _______ blood K+ levels by stimulating ________ in cells
decreases and Na< K pumps
Sodium is lost from the body in the ______
sweat, feces, and urine
Renin is released by the _______ apparatus in the kidney
Place the following events in order:
1. lactic acid and level rise
2. blood pH drops
3. kidneys reabsrob HCO3
4. blood pH rises
Hypovenilation leads to ______
_______ water loss always occurs regardless of the hydration status of the organism
Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?
Which of the following may cause metabolic alkalosis?
overuse of diuretics, overuse of antacids, and vomiting
Your father has chronic heart burn and is continually eating antacids as a result. This will ______ the pH of his blood
Low levels of Na+ (below the normal physiological levels) is correctly identified as __________
Metabolic-induced acid-base disturbances are caused by:
abnormal concentration of HCO3-
Which of the following are sources of fixed acids in the body?
absorption from the GI tract, metabolism of lipids, and metabolic production of lactic acid
Inside the muscle cells calcium is stored in the _______ _______
Antidiuretic hormone exerts its effects by which of the following?
increasing water reabsorption in the kidney and increasing thirst in the hypothalamus
In response to increased blood osmolarity, the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated to release more _______ hormone
Only the ______ form of calcium is physiologically active
True or False: extracellular fluid contains more negatively charged proteins than the intracellular fluid
The anion is a common buffer in urine and an important intracellular buffer against pH changes
Which of the following are examples of ways that fluid imbalances with changes in osmolarity can occur?
water intoxication and profuse sweating
___________ hormone (vasopressin), which is released from the posterior pituitary gland, increases water reabsorption in the kidneys thereby increasing blood volume and blood pressure
True or False: most Americans consume meat and wheat which act to acidify the blood
Which of the following can cause respiratory acidosis?
airway obstruction, pulmonary edema, and emphysema
Which of the following can result in metabolic acidosis?
severe diarrhea, increased anaerobic respiration, and excessive alcohol intake
A ________ is a solute that does not dissociate in solution
Pleural ________ is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity and is generally associated with lung infections
The normal level of K+ in the extracellular fluid is in the range of which option?
Which of the following can cause respiratory alkalosis?
climbing a 14,000 ft peak, congestive heart failure, and hyperventilation
If the Na+ concentration in the ECF increases due to dehydration then the ECF becomes __________
Because osmotic pressure depends on the number of solutes, Na Cl, which dissociates into Na+ and Cl-, exerts _______ osmotic pressure than glucose, which does not dissoicate
Water moves between fluid compartments by what process?
Angiotensin II causes which of the following effects?
vasoconstriction, increased thirst, and increased ADH secretion
An increase in aldosterone levels results in the increased reabsoprtion of what ion?
ADH levels increase due to nerve stimulation from what type of receptors in the carotid arteries?
A decreased glomerulus filtration rate will _______ blood angiotension II levels
In the ECF, the blood _______ has a higher concentration of protein than the interstitial fluid
ADH secretion is stimulated by which of the following?
high blood osmolarity and low blood pressure
Your two year old brother throws a temper tantrum and holds his breath. This eventually will cause CO2 levels to _______ his blood pH to ______
increase and decrease
Fluid movement between compartments occurs because of changes to the relative _______
An increase in stretch of the adrenal cortex is stimulated by _______ blood pressure, and ______ Na+ plasma levels
low and low
Because they are smaller in size and unable to offload CO2 as effectively, babies are more prone to respiratory _______ than adults
A decrease in Na+ concentration in the ECF due to low salt diet would result in which of the following options?
decreased blood volume levels and decreased blood pressure
Patients with diabetes mellitus often suffer from a pH imbalance known as ________ due to the breakdown of lipids instead of carbohydrates
ANP exerts its physiological effects in which of the following ways?
decreasing renin release and decreasing vasoconstriction inperipheral blood vessels
A baby that has chronic severe diarrhea may develop metabolic _______
Renal compensation _______ blood bicarbonate levels
increases or decreases
Your baby has had severe diarrhea for days and is going into metabolic acidosis. Her respiratory system will attempt to compensate by _______ the respiratory rate
All of the following options are physiological roles of calcium except?
establishing the resting membrane potential
The respiratory system can compensate for metabolic acidosis or alkalosis by:
changing the respiratory rate
An increase in ANP in the body causes a(n) ______ loss of Na+ ions in the urine
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