130 terms

Year Long Crash Course

This is a combination of every single Crash Course Quizlet I have made.
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Food Web
Complex network of feeding relationships and energy flow within an ecosystem.
Autotroph
Producer
Primary Consumer
Consumer that eats producers
Secondary Consumer
Consumer that eats primary consumers
Primary Succession
No soil. Lichens are the first pioneer species
Secondary Succession
Soil. Pioneer species vary
Climax Community
Stable community following succession
Pioneer species
First species to move into an area
Parasitism
One species benefits off of the others expense
Mutualism
Both species benefit and neither is harmed
Commensalism
One species benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed
What are three factors that affect population in size?
Births, deaths, and immigration
Emigration
Organisms moving out of a population
Carrying Capacity
The number of individuals that the resources of an environment can normally support.
Density Dependent Factors
Food, Water, Space, Mates, and Disease
Density Independent Factors
Weather and Natural disasters (hurricanes, floods, drought), and Human Activities
Weather
Day to day conditions of the atmosphere, including temperature, precipitation and other factors
Climate
Average year to year conditions of temperature and precipitation in an area over a long period of time.
Carbon Cycle
Enters via plants through photosynthesis
Nitrogen Cycle
Enters via bacteria through nitrogen fixation
Phosphorus cycle
Enters via rocks
Zebra mussels are native to Poland and the Soviet Union. They probably transported to the United States via trans
Oceanic vessels. With no natural predators in the United States, Zebra mussels...-Cause a huge decline in native clam and mussel population.
Lichens are responsible for__________ or the establishment of a new site for plant growth.
Primary Succession
Farmer Brown sprays insecticides on his crops to kill insects. Several days after spraying, he notices many dead bugs around the pond. That summer the number of frogs around the pond was lower than ever. The frog population has declined because...
Bugs are the limiting factor for the frogs.
Charles Darwin
Father of Evolution
Common Descent
Looking backwards in time you should find the common ancestor of all living things
Lamarck
Proposed that by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime.
Transitional Forms
Reveal links between different groups
Biogeographical Evidence
Study of the geographical distribution of life forms on earth
Homologous structures
Structures that have different mature forms and functions but develop form the same embryonic tissues
Vestigial structures
Organs of many animals are so reduced in size or traces of homologous organs.
Analogous Structures
Structures that serve the same function in organisms but have a different internal anatomy
Embryological Evidence
Similarities among like organisms during early development
Biochemical Evidence
Similarities in DNA and amino acid sequences
Genetic Drift
Fluctuation in allele frequency based on a finite population size and chance. (Random change)
Bottleneck
Sudden change in environment reduces size and only several individuals survive
Founder Effect
Individuals become isolated form a population and established a new population
The Wings of a bird and the wings of a butterfly are __________ and show __________ evolution.
Analogous; convergence
The sharp reduction of the gene pool and the numbers of a population through a severe epidemic is an example of...
The bottleneck effect
In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In whales, the pelvis and femur are...
Vestigial structures
Biochemical evidence in support of natural selection includes...
The nearly universal genetic code.
What are the three parts of the cell theory?
All living things are made of cells, cells are the basic units of life, and cells come only from other cells
Who were the scientists who contributed to the cell theory?
Hooke, Leeuwenhock, Schwann, Schleiden, and Virchow
The invention of the _________ was critical!
Microscope
We want a small _______ to ______ ratio.
Surface to volume
Prokaryotic cells
has no nucleus, or any other membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotic Cells
Cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Cytoplasm
Clear, jellylike, suspends organelles
Cell wall
Protection, found in bacteria, plant cells, fungi
Cell membrane
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell to maintain homeostasis, semipermeable
Nucleus
Control center, stores DNA
Nucleolus
Inside nucleus, produces ribosomes
Ribosomes and Rough ER
Protein synthesis
Smooth ER
Lipid production and detoxifies
Vacuole
Temporary storage, plant cells have one large central vacuole
Mitochondria
Produces ATP (Energy)
Golgi Apparatus/Body
Sorts and packages proteins for export in vesicles
Chloroplast
Absorb light energy for photosynthesis, plant cells
Lysosomes
Break down materials no longer used by the cell
Which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into useable energy?
Mitochondrion
These structures are the primary cellular sites for the production of proteins.
Ribosomes
Which sequence correctly traces the path of a protein in the cell?
Ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus
Looking at a cell under a microscope, you note that it is a prokaryote. How do you know?
The cell lacks a nucleus
Which organelle breaks down organelles that are no longer useful?
Lysosome
Which of the following is NOT found in the nucleus?
Mitochondrion
Binary Fission
Bacteria cell division
The type of cells that divide using Binary Fission.
Prokaryotes
What are the three stages if interphase?
G1, S G2
G1
Cell grows and replicates organelles
S
Cell copies its DNA
G2
Additional growth
Prophase
Chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope and nucleolus breaks down, spindle forms
Metaphase
Chromosomes, attached to spindle fibers, align along the center of the cell
Anaphase
Chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell
Telophase
Two new nuclear membranes begin to reform (undo prophase)
Cytokinesis
Process by with cytoplasm divides between the two cells
What are the four Mitotic stages?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Eukaryotes undergo _______.
Mitosis
What are the results of mitosis?
Two identical daughter cells
Cells are _______ (2 of each type of chromosome, homologous pairs)
Diploid
Cleavage furrow
The area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell
Cell plate
In a plant cell, midline of dividing cells. Becomes the cell wall eventually.
Meiosis
Forming gametes (sperm and egg)
Diploid cells divide into _______ cells.
Haploid
Cells undergoing meiosis go through _ rounds of cell division.
2
Meiosis results in...???
4 genetically different haploid cells
Cells undergoing meiosis go through _ round(s) of Interphase.
1
Cancer
Uncontrolled cell growth
Cell growth is usually regulated by ________.
Proteins
P53
Tumor suppressor gene
When during the cell cycle is a cell's DNA replicates?
S phase
Meiosis typically results in the production of...???
4 haploid cells
During cytokinesis, a ________ ______ forms in animal cells while a ____ _____ forms in plant cells.
Cleavage furrow and cell plate
Homologous chromosomes...???
May exchange parts during meiosis, have the same genes but different alleles, and pair up during meiosis
Gamete formation is
The formation of sex cells
During this stage chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell
Metaphase
Condensation and shortening of chromosomes occurs during this phase.
Prophase
Spindle fibers first appear during this stage to create a spindle.
Prophase
During this phase the centromeres break apart as the separated sister chromatids begin to move to opposite poles
Anaphase
Cytokinesis occurs as this phase of mitosis proceeds.
Telophase
New daughter cells form during this phase
Telophase
During this phase cell activity is normal where the cell grows and matures.
Interphase
Nucleic acids
Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and phosphorous.
DNA
The universal code that stores genetic information in all organisms
Semi
conservative-Bases in original strand split and new nucleotides complementary base pair to form two new strands
Mutations
Any change to the DNA sequence
Gene mutation
Permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene.
Transcription
The process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA
Translation
Process by which mRNA is decoded and proteins are made.
Codon
Three nucleotide bases
tRNA
Reads the codon on the mRNA using anticodons and the complimentary base pair rules and delivers the amino acids
What would be the replicated DNA strand for the following DNA sequence?...GCGTATG
CGCATATC
What would be the mRNA and tRNA be for the following DNA sequence?...AGGTTA
mRNA...UCCAAU. tRNA...AGGUUA.
The process of converting the genetic message from DNA into ____ is called transcription.
mRNA
How many amino acids are in the human body and what do we call the bond that holds them together?
20; Peptide bond
A single strand of DNA contains the following nine nucleotides in order ACTTATGGA. What sequence of bases will be present on the complementary strand of DNA?
TGAATACCT
In humans, insulin is manufactured in the pancreas. Insulin is a peptide hormone that causes the body's cells to take up glucose. The blueprint for the polypeptide chain that is insulin is found in the __________ of specialized pancreatic cells.
DNA
Given the sequence of DNA nucleotide bases TTAGCCTTG, give the complementary mRNA produced during transcription.
AATCGGAAC
Identify the correct sequence of molecules, as a gene goes from coded information in the nucleus, to the product the cell wants to make.
DNA...messenger RNA...transfer RNA...Protein
Why is DNA replication considered semiconservative?
Each half of the old DNA strand serves as a template for the new growing strand causing the copied DNA to half new and half old.
Classification
The arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities
Taxonomists
Scientists that identify and name organisms
Carolus Linnaeus
Father of Taxonomy
Binomial Nomenclature
Two word naming system
What is the Hierarchy of the Taxonomic groups?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Animalia
Multicellular, Ingestive heterotrophs
Plantae
Multicellular, Autotrophic
Fungi
Multicellular, Absorptive heterotrophs
Protista
Most are unicellular
Dichotomous Key
Used to identify organisms, characteristics given in pairs
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