130 terms

Year Long Crash Course

This is a combination of every single Crash Course Quizlet I have made.

Terms in this set (...)

Food Web
Complex network of feeding relationships and energy flow within an ecosystem.
Primary Consumer
Consumer that eats producers
Secondary Consumer
Consumer that eats primary consumers
Primary Succession
No soil. Lichens are the first pioneer species
Secondary Succession
Soil. Pioneer species vary
Climax Community
Stable community following succession
Pioneer species
First species to move into an area
One species benefits off of the others expense
Both species benefit and neither is harmed
One species benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed
What are three factors that affect population in size?
Births, deaths, and immigration
Organisms moving out of a population
Carrying Capacity
The number of individuals that the resources of an environment can normally support.
Density Dependent Factors
Food, Water, Space, Mates, and Disease
Density Independent Factors
Weather and Natural disasters (hurricanes, floods, drought), and Human Activities
Day to day conditions of the atmosphere, including temperature, precipitation and other factors
Average year to year conditions of temperature and precipitation in an area over a long period of time.
Carbon Cycle
Enters via plants through photosynthesis
Nitrogen Cycle
Enters via bacteria through nitrogen fixation
Phosphorus cycle
Enters via rocks
Zebra mussels are native to Poland and the Soviet Union. They probably transported to the United States via trans
Oceanic vessels. With no natural predators in the United States, Zebra mussels...-Cause a huge decline in native clam and mussel population.
Lichens are responsible for__________ or the establishment of a new site for plant growth.
Primary Succession
Farmer Brown sprays insecticides on his crops to kill insects. Several days after spraying, he notices many dead bugs around the pond. That summer the number of frogs around the pond was lower than ever. The frog population has declined because...
Bugs are the limiting factor for the frogs.
Charles Darwin
Father of Evolution
Common Descent
Looking backwards in time you should find the common ancestor of all living things
Proposed that by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime.
Transitional Forms
Reveal links between different groups
Biogeographical Evidence
Study of the geographical distribution of life forms on earth
Homologous structures
Structures that have different mature forms and functions but develop form the same embryonic tissues
Vestigial structures
Organs of many animals are so reduced in size or traces of homologous organs.
Analogous Structures
Structures that serve the same function in organisms but have a different internal anatomy
Embryological Evidence
Similarities among like organisms during early development
Biochemical Evidence
Similarities in DNA and amino acid sequences
Genetic Drift
Fluctuation in allele frequency based on a finite population size and chance. (Random change)
Sudden change in environment reduces size and only several individuals survive
Founder Effect
Individuals become isolated form a population and established a new population
The Wings of a bird and the wings of a butterfly are __________ and show __________ evolution.
Analogous; convergence
The sharp reduction of the gene pool and the numbers of a population through a severe epidemic is an example of...
The bottleneck effect
In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In whales, the pelvis and femur are...
Vestigial structures
Biochemical evidence in support of natural selection includes...
The nearly universal genetic code.
What are the three parts of the cell theory?
All living things are made of cells, cells are the basic units of life, and cells come only from other cells
Who were the scientists who contributed to the cell theory?
Hooke, Leeuwenhock, Schwann, Schleiden, and Virchow
The invention of the _________ was critical!
We want a small _______ to ______ ratio.
Surface to volume
Prokaryotic cells
has no nucleus, or any other membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotic Cells
Cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Clear, jellylike, suspends organelles
Cell wall
Protection, found in bacteria, plant cells, fungi
Cell membrane
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell to maintain homeostasis, semipermeable
Control center, stores DNA
Inside nucleus, produces ribosomes
Ribosomes and Rough ER
Protein synthesis
Smooth ER
Lipid production and detoxifies
Temporary storage, plant cells have one large central vacuole
Produces ATP (Energy)
Golgi Apparatus/Body
Sorts and packages proteins for export in vesicles
Absorb light energy for photosynthesis, plant cells
Break down materials no longer used by the cell
Which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into useable energy?
These structures are the primary cellular sites for the production of proteins.
Which sequence correctly traces the path of a protein in the cell?
Ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus
Looking at a cell under a microscope, you note that it is a prokaryote. How do you know?
The cell lacks a nucleus
Which organelle breaks down organelles that are no longer useful?
Which of the following is NOT found in the nucleus?
Binary Fission
Bacteria cell division
The type of cells that divide using Binary Fission.
What are the three stages if interphase?
G1, S G2
Cell grows and replicates organelles
Cell copies its DNA
Additional growth
Chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope and nucleolus breaks down, spindle forms
Chromosomes, attached to spindle fibers, align along the center of the cell
Chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell
Two new nuclear membranes begin to reform (undo prophase)
Process by with cytoplasm divides between the two cells
What are the four Mitotic stages?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Eukaryotes undergo _______.
What are the results of mitosis?
Two identical daughter cells
Cells are _______ (2 of each type of chromosome, homologous pairs)
Cleavage furrow
The area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell
Cell plate
In a plant cell, midline of dividing cells. Becomes the cell wall eventually.
Forming gametes (sperm and egg)
Diploid cells divide into _______ cells.
Cells undergoing meiosis go through _ rounds of cell division.
Meiosis results in...???
4 genetically different haploid cells
Cells undergoing meiosis go through _ round(s) of Interphase.
Uncontrolled cell growth
Cell growth is usually regulated by ________.
Tumor suppressor gene
When during the cell cycle is a cell's DNA replicates?
S phase
Meiosis typically results in the production of...???
4 haploid cells
During cytokinesis, a ________ ______ forms in animal cells while a ____ _____ forms in plant cells.
Cleavage furrow and cell plate
Homologous chromosomes...???
May exchange parts during meiosis, have the same genes but different alleles, and pair up during meiosis
Gamete formation is
The formation of sex cells
During this stage chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell
Condensation and shortening of chromosomes occurs during this phase.
Spindle fibers first appear during this stage to create a spindle.
During this phase the centromeres break apart as the separated sister chromatids begin to move to opposite poles
Cytokinesis occurs as this phase of mitosis proceeds.
New daughter cells form during this phase
During this phase cell activity is normal where the cell grows and matures.
Nucleic acids
Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and phosphorous.
The universal code that stores genetic information in all organisms
conservative-Bases in original strand split and new nucleotides complementary base pair to form two new strands
Any change to the DNA sequence
Gene mutation
Permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene.
The process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA
Process by which mRNA is decoded and proteins are made.
Three nucleotide bases
Reads the codon on the mRNA using anticodons and the complimentary base pair rules and delivers the amino acids
What would be the replicated DNA strand for the following DNA sequence?...GCGTATG
What would be the mRNA and tRNA be for the following DNA sequence?...AGGTTA
The process of converting the genetic message from DNA into ____ is called transcription.
How many amino acids are in the human body and what do we call the bond that holds them together?
20; Peptide bond
A single strand of DNA contains the following nine nucleotides in order ACTTATGGA. What sequence of bases will be present on the complementary strand of DNA?
In humans, insulin is manufactured in the pancreas. Insulin is a peptide hormone that causes the body's cells to take up glucose. The blueprint for the polypeptide chain that is insulin is found in the __________ of specialized pancreatic cells.
Given the sequence of DNA nucleotide bases TTAGCCTTG, give the complementary mRNA produced during transcription.
Identify the correct sequence of molecules, as a gene goes from coded information in the nucleus, to the product the cell wants to make.
DNA...messenger RNA...transfer RNA...Protein
Why is DNA replication considered semiconservative?
Each half of the old DNA strand serves as a template for the new growing strand causing the copied DNA to half new and half old.
The arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities
Scientists that identify and name organisms
Carolus Linnaeus
Father of Taxonomy
Binomial Nomenclature
Two word naming system
What is the Hierarchy of the Taxonomic groups?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Multicellular, Ingestive heterotrophs
Multicellular, Autotrophic
Multicellular, Absorptive heterotrophs
Most are unicellular
Dichotomous Key
Used to identify organisms, characteristics given in pairs