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LS2 Esdin Midterm 2 
Terms in this set (82)
The biochemical process by which plants convert light energy (from the sun) into chemical energy
This is a form of energy known as electromagnetic radiation
The distance between waves (quantity of energy) is called a _______________.
The waves that can be detected by the human eye in various colors is called ______________.
When light meets matter (living or non-living) it may be
_____________, ______________, or _______________
reflected, transmitted, absorbed
Low wavelength has a ___________ (high or low) energy.
T/F: Energy and wavelength are inversely proportional
Which color has the lowest energy?
Which color has the lowest wavelength and highest energy?
Light consists of discrete particles called ___________ that each have a fixed amount of energy
If the photon is absorbed, the ________________ will acquire the energy of the photon
The specific molecules that can absorb light are called _____________. Upon absorbing energy, they undergo a conformational change.
Molecules are _____________ energy when they get excited and ____________ energy when they go back to their ground state.
Some of the energy released is lost as __________ and the rest is passed to a neighboring molecule.
How does the water make it from the roots to the leaves?
Through the xylem
Tiny microscopic openings in the leaves that allow CO2 to move into plants.
What are the two pathways of photosynthesis?
Light-dependent reaction and the Calvin-Benson Cycle
Where does photosynthesis occur?
Occurs in the leaves (chloroplasts)
The internal membrane of chloroplasts consist of a series of flat structures called __________.
What is the fluid inside the chloroplast is called?
Within the granum, we see folds of membrane material that is called the _____________
In the light reaction, ATP is produced by a chemiosmotic mechanism similar to that of mitochondria, called ________________
Reaction where the energy of sunlight is absorbed and converted into chemical energy in the form of two substances: ATP and NADPH
In this process, electrons that are pushed into high energy levels by absorbed light are used as a source of energy to convert inorganic CO2 into an organic form
Plants use these three resources to produce almost all organic matter on Earth, and to supply the oxygen in our atmosphere.
Sunlight, water, carbon dioxide
The source of electrons and protons for carbon fixation is found in this molecule...
The light-dependent reaction produces?
ATP and NADPH
What does the Calvin Cycle produce?
ADP, inorganic phosphate, and NADP+
This is a neuron that produces a lot of proteins and is where the nucleus is located
These function to receive electrical signals
This is a neuron that generates major electrical activity and transmits electrical activity AWAY from the cell soma
These produce myelin sheath
What are the function of myelin sheath?
Insulates the axon and speeds up electrical activity
These are gaps in myelin sheath along the axon
Nodes of Ranvier
________ neurons bring stimuli from sensors (skin, eyes) to the CNS
Which type of neurons connect neurons with the CNS and process information?
___________ neurons send information from the brain to the muscles and glands
These neurons have many dendrites and one axon. They are found in the brain and the spinal cord
These neurons function as sensory neurons and are found in the ears, nose, eyes.
These neurons also function as sensory neurons, but have a short single process that divides into two long branches
Two neurons form a junction called a __________
The neuron sending the signal is called the ________________ neuron.
The neuron receiving the signal is called the ____________ neuron.
What is the junction between the axon terminals and the dendrites called
What is the junction between the axon terminal and the cell body called?
A neuron receiving multiple signals from other neurons is called a
A neuron that forms synapses with multiple neurons is called a
What is the approximate threshold for action potentials?
What is an action potential?
An electrical message sent from one neuron to another
At the dendrites and cell body, there is ________ potential
At the axon and axon hillock, there is an __________ potential
In the extracellular fluid, where do the positive and negative charges come from?
Positive comes from Sodium ions
Negative comes from Chloride ions
In the intracellular fluid, where do the positive and negative charges come from?
Positive comes from Potassium ions
Negative comes from Anions (large molecules that are not permeable, proteins)
If there are equal charges on both sides, there is no _________ and no __________ _____________ will be generated
potential, electrical activity
If there is a difference in charge, ___________ and __________ ____________
potential, electrical activity
What is electric potential?
The potential for particles to move when electrical force acts on charged particles.
Are there a lot more sodium ions on the inside or outside of the neuron?
Are there more potassium ions inside or outside the membrane?
Potassium has the tendency to move ____________ in a neuron
Sodium has the tendency to move ____________ in a neuron
These are channels on the membrane that are not gated and act as simple diffusion through the membrane
At rest, sodium is moving ________ the neuron and potassium is moving _______ of the neuron
If the ions (sodium or potassium) reach ______________, there will be no more driving force on the ions, and so the cell will lose the ability to have potential (loses excitability)
What allows the cell to maintain its excitable state (have potential) and not reach equilibrium?
The sodium/potassium pump
The ______________ ion channel has a wider pore than the _____________ channel at rest
When the membrane becomes more positive (than -70mV), we call this
When the membrane becomes more negative (than -70mV), we call this
This is one of the two major gated channels. It opens faster and has three states: Closed at resting potential, Open, and Inactivated.
Voltage-gated sodium channel
This channel is slower to open and only contains two states: open or closed
Voltage-gated potassium channel
These channels are always active (always open), so they don't play a role in the action potential.
These cells produce Myelin in the Peripheral Nervous System
These cells produce Myelin in the Central Nervous System
In the Nodes of Ranvier, there is no ____________
Action potentials start from _________________________
the axon hillock
This is a period when no action potential can occur because the voltage-gated sodium channels are not available
Absolute Refractory Period
When the action potential can occur, but there must be a higher stimulation because some voltage-gated sodium channels are available, so if higher stimulation, there will be an action potential. Some action potential can happen
Relative Refractory Period
When the action potential reaches the axon terminal, it will trigger a
Voltage-gated calcium channel
To get an action potential, we need _________________, which is achieved by ligand-gated ion channels in the postsynaptic neuron.
Neurons are always receiving _____________, but if they are below threshold, we don't get an action potential. If it is above, we do get an action potential
when ligand-gated channels in postsynaptic neuron are permeable to a positive ion (depolarization occurs), there is this type of potential
when ligand-gated channels in postsynaptic neuron are permeable to a negative ion (no depolarization)
True or False: The bigger the difference in charge, the lower the potential
False; the higher the potential
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