Terms in this set (21)

It is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear.
At common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions. Robbery is differentiated from other forms of theft (such as burglary, shoplifting or car theft) by its inherently violent nature (a violent crime); whereas many lesser forms of theft are punished as misdemeanors, robbery is always a felony in jurisdictions that distinguish between the two. Under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is triable only on indictment. The word "rob" came viaFrench from Late Latin words (e.g. deraubare) of Germanic origin, from Common Germanic raub -- "theft".
Among the types of robbery are armed robbery involving use of a weapon and aggravated robbery involving use of a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or "mugging" takes place outside or in a public place such as a sidewalk, street, or parking lot. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force. Extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given, primarily using words instead of actions.
Criminal slang for robbery includes "blagging" (armed robbery, usually of a bank) or "stick-up" (derived from the verbal command to robbery targets to raise their hands in the air), and "steaming" (organized robbery on underground train systems).
It is typically defined as the unlawful entry into almost any structure (not just a home or business) with the intent to commit any crime inside (not just theft/larceny). No physical breaking and entering is required; the offender may simply trespass through an open door. Unlike robbery, which involves use of force or fear to obtain another person's property, there is usually no victim present during a burglary.
For example, Dan enters Victor's boathouse through an open window, intending to steal Victor's boat. Finding the boat is gone, Dan returns home. Though he took nothing, Dan has committed burglary.
The crime of burglary has been around for a long time. It originally developed under the common law, but states have incorporated the basic idea of burglary into their penal codes, albeit with some slight modifications. For instance, under the common law definition of burglary, the crime had to take place in the dwelling house of another at night. Most states have subsequently broadened the definition of burglary to include businesses and illegal entries during the day.
Burglary developed to protect a person's interest in their home and to prevent violence, not to protect against theft. Other laws criminalize the taking of property; instead, burglary is meant to safeguard the sanctity of a person's home and to protect against the possible violence that could arise if someone discovers a burglar in their house.
The definition of burglary arises out of state law, and thus, the components of the crime may differ slightly depending on the state. Federal criminal law incorporates the meaning of burglary used by the state that the crime occurred in.
Most states and the Model Penal Code use the same basic definition of burglary, however. In those states, burglary is:
1. The unauthorized breaking and entry;
2. into a building or occupied structure;
3. with the intent to commit a crime inside.
Each of those elements must be present in order to convict a defendant accused of burglary, so its important to examine each of them a little more closely.
Breaking and Entry
The first element of burglary involves the burglar breaking into and entering a structure. The breaking-in can occur in two ways: actual and constructive.
Actual breaking involves physical force: picking a lock or kicking a door in, for example. It could even be a very slight use of force, such as pushing open a door thats been left ajar.
Constructive breaking, on the other hand, entails means of gaining entry that dont use physical force: threats, blackmail or fraud, for example.
However a burglar breaks in to the structure, they must also enter the structure in order to satisfy this element. The entry can be minimal; the burglar doesnt have to actually walk into a building in order to commit a burglary. Sticking a hand through a window counts as an entry sufficient to support a charge of burglary.
It is also important to note that the entry has to occur without the consent of the person occupying the property.
Building or Occupied Structure
As mentioned above, under the common law crime of burglary, the accused burglar had to break into someone else's home. Under the modern definition, a person commits burglary if they break into almost any type of building or structure, so long as the structure meets certain requirements.
Usually, states require that the structure be capable of either housing people or animals, or sheltering property. Houses certainly qualify under this definition, as do their outlying structures, such as garages and sheds. Stores and office buildings also qualify.
Breaking into a fenced-off area may not qualify as burglary, however, since such areas generally do not act as a shelter for people, animals, or property. For example, breaking into an amusement park after hours probably wouldn't meet the requirements for a charge of burglary, but breaking into a building on the amusement park property probably would.
The structure must also be closed to the public at the time of the burglary. If a person enters a store during its normal retail hours and steals an item, the person has committed a shoplifting crime, and not a burglary. If, on the other hand, the person waits until after the store has closed, picks the lock on the front door and steals the same item, then a burglary has occurred.
Abandoned buildings generally do not qualify as buildings or structures for the purposes of burglary charges. Breaking and entering into an abandoned building may result in other criminal charges, but most likely not a burglary charge.
Intent
In order for a break-in to constitute a burglary, the person breaking in must have the intent to commit a crime inside the building. Usually, this crime is theft, but other crimes can render a break-in a burglary as well.
The crime has to exist separately from the break-in itself. For example, if an individual uses fraud - which is a crime - to gain after-hours entrance to a building to view a piece of art, no burglary has taken place since the only crime that occurred was the fraud used to gain entrance to the building. Of course, taking the art would elevate the crime to one of burglary.
The timing of the intent also becomes important when determining the degree of a burglary charge. For instance, if a person intended to commit the crime in question before they broke in to the building, then most states will consider this to be a burglary of the first degree (more serious). If the person broke into a building and only subsequently formed the intent to commit a crime, most states will classify the burglary as second degree.
Many other factors may affect the degree or seriousness of the burglary, so it is important to check the specific laws of the state you are in.
It gets its name from the Vandals who were a colony of people (The Vandals, an ancient Germanic people, are associated with senseless destruction as a result of their sack of Rome under King Genseric in 455.) It is an offense that occurs when a person destroys or defaces someone else's property without permission. Effects of vandalism may include broken windows, graffiti, damage to vehicles, and even damage or destruction of a person's website. The results of vandalism may be found on billboards, street signs, and building structures, as well as near bus stops, tunnels, cemeteries, and many other public spaces.
While vandalism may be considered "art" by some, it is nonetheless a crime against property that is punishable by jail time, monetary fines, or both.
What Constitutes Vandalism?
Vandalism is a broad category crime that is used to describe a variety of behaviors. Generally, vandalism includes any willful behavior aimed at destroying, altering, or defacing property belonging to another.
Common behaviors that may lead to a vandalism charge include:
Spray painting another's property with the purpose of defacing;
"Egging" someone's car or window;
Keying (or scratching) paint off of someone's car;
Breaking someone's windows;
Defacing public property with graffiti and other forms of "art";
Slashing someone's tires;
Defacing park benches; and
Altering or knocking down street signs;
Kicking and damaging someone's property with your hands or feet; and several other behaviors.
In addition, a person who possesses the means to commit vandalism, including possession of a drill bit, glass cutter, or other substance, may also face vandalism charges under certain circumstances (for example, a person under eighteen who carries a can of spray paint at a park or on school grounds).
Vandalism Laws
Vandalism is covered by state statutes, and varies by state. Some states refer to vandalism as "criminal damage", "malicious trespass", "malicious mischief", or other terms. In an effort to control the impact of vandalism, many states have specific laws that may decrease certain forms of vandalism. For example, some states have local "aerosol container laws" that limit the purchase of spray paint containers or other "vandalism tools" which could be used for graffiti or vandalism purposes.
In addition, some states have laws that prohibit vandalism to certain types of property, such as autos, churches, school property, and government facilities.
Moreover, some states have laws that prohibit specific acts of vandalism, such as breaking windows, graffiti, and using man-made substances to destroy property.
Purpose of the Law
Vandalism laws exist to prevent the destruction of property and public spaces, and may also exist to protect against hate crimes and other behavior that is directed at religious or minority groups, such as ransacking a church or synagogue, writing racist or sexist graffiti on school property, or etching a swastika in a car.
Penalties and Punishment
Depending on the specific state and value of the property damage, vandalism is either a misdemeanor or felony offense. Penalties typically include fines, imprisonment in county jail, or both. In addition, a person convicted of vandalism is frequently ordered to wash, repair or replace the damaged property (known as "restitution"), and/or participate in programs to clean up graffiti and other forms of vandalism. Moreover, a parent of a minor child may be ordered to pay fines resulting from their child's vandal behavior under a "parental liability" theory.
Related Offenses
Vandalism, on its own, is often considered a non-violent crime that generally affects ones "quality of life", but may escalate to more serious crimes typically involving juveniles including theft/larceny, burglary, drug possession, disturbing the peace, and other random acts of violence.
Defenses to Vandalism
Defenses to vandalism typically include circumstances that might "mitigate" or lesson the penalties, such as indifference, accident, mischief, or creative expression. Even though vandalism is a crime that generally requires completion of the act, it does not require you to get "caught in the act". You may be charged with vandalism after the fact if there are witnesses, surveillance, or other evidence that might implicate you with the crime.
Conclusion
Vandalism has the potential to cost states millions of dollars each year in clean-up efforts and other program costs, and may cause psychological or emotional damage to property owners as well. When a person defaces, alters, or otherwise destroys someone's property, he or she may be required to clean- up, repair, or replace the damaged property or, more substantially, face criminal penalties in the form of jail time, fines, or both.
It is the process of transforming the proceeds of crime into ostensibly legitimate money or other assets. However, in a number of legal and regulatory systems, the term money laundering has become conflated with other forms of financial crime, and sometimes used more generally to include misuse of the financial system (involving things such as securities, digital currencies, credit cards, and traditional currency), including terrorism financing and evasion of international sanctions. Most anti-money laundering laws openly conflate money laundering (which is concerned with source of funds) with terrorism financing (which is concerned with destination of funds) when regulating the financial system.
According to the United States Treasury Department:
Money laundering is the process of making illegally-gained proceeds (i.e. "dirty money") appear legal (i.e. "clean"). Typically, it involves three steps: placement, layering and integration. First, the illegitimate funds are furtively introduced into the legitimate financial system. Then, the money is moved around to create confusion, sometimes by wiring or transferring through numerous accounts. Finally, it is integrated into the financial system through additional transactions until the "dirty money" appears "clean."
Money obtained from certain crimes, such as extortion, insider trading, drug trafficking and illegal gambling is "dirty". It needs to be cleaned to appear to have been derived from legal activities so that banks and other financial institutions will deal with it without suspicion. Money can be laundered by many methods, which vary in complexity and sophistication.
Different countries may or may not treat payments in breach of international sanctions as money laundering. Some jurisdictions differentiate these for definition purposes, and others do not. Some jurisdictions define money laundering as obfuscating sources of money, either intentionally or by merely using financial systems or services that do not identify or track sources or destinations.
Other jurisdictions define money laundering to include money from activity that would have been a crime in that jurisdiction, even if it were legal where the actual conduct occurred. This broad brush of applying the term "money laundering" to merely incidental, extraterritorial, or simply privacy-seeking behaviours has led some to label it "financial thought crime".
Many regulatory and governmental authorities issue estimates each year for the amount of money laundered, either worldwide or within their national economy. In 1996, the International estimated that two to five percent of the worldwide global economy involved laundered money. The Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF), an intergovernmental body set up to combat money laundering, stated, "Overall, it is absolutely impossible to produce a reliable estimate of the amount of money laundered and therefore the FATF does not publish any figures in this regard. Academic commentators have likewise been unable to estimate the volume of money with any degree of assurance. Various estimates of the scale of global money laundering are sometimes repeated often enough to make some people regard them as factual—but no researcher has overcome the inherent difficulty of measuring an actively concealed practice.
Regardless of the difficulty in measurement, the amount of money laundered each year is in the billions (US dollars) and poses a significant policy concern for governments. As a result, governments and international bodies have undertaken efforts to deter, prevent, and apprehend money launderers. Financial institutions have likewise undertaken efforts to prevent and detect transactions involving dirty money, both as a result of government requirements and to avoid the reputational risk involved. Issues relating to money laundering have existed as long as there have been large scale criminal enterprises. Modern anti-money laundering laws have developed along with the modern War on Drugs. In more recent times anti-money laundering legislation is seen as adjunct to the financial crime of terrorist financing in that both crimes usually involve the transmission of funds through the financial system (although money laundering relates to where the money has come from, and terrorist financing relating to where the money is going to).
is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from a person, entity, individual or institution, through coercion( Compelling or manipulating a person to act in one's own Desired way.). It is sometimes euphemistically referred to as a "protection racket" since the racketeers often phrase their demands as payment for "protection" from (real or hypothetical) threats from unspecified other parties. Extortion is commonly practiced by organized crime groups. The actual obtainment of money or property is not required to commit the offense. Making a threat of violence which refers to a requirement of a payment of money or property to halt future violence is sufficient to commit the offense. Exaction refers not only to extortion or the demanding and obtaining of something through force, but additionally, in its formal definition, means the infliction of something such as pain and suffering or making somebody endure something unpleasant.
Extortion is distinguished from robbery. In robbery, whether armed or not, the offender takes property from the victim by the immediate use of force or fear that force will be immediately used (as in the classic line, "Your money or your life.") Extortion, which is not limited to the taking of property, involves the verbal or written instillation of fear that something will happen to the victim if they do not comply with the extortionist's will. Another key distinction is that extortion always involves a verbal or written threat, whereas robbery does not. In United States federal law, extortion can be committed with or without the use of force and with or without the use of a weapon.
In blackmail, which always involves extortion, the extortionist threatens to reveal information about a victim or their family members that is potentially embarrassing, socially damaging, or incriminating unless a demand for money, property, or services is met.
The term extortion is often used metaphorically to refer to usury or to price-gouging, though neither is legally considered extortion. It is also often used loosely to refer to everyday situations where one person feels indebted against their will, to another, in order to receive an essential service or avoid legal consequences.
Neither extortion nor blackmail requires a threat of a criminal act, such as violence, merely a threat used to elicit actions, money, or property from the object of the extortion. Such threats include the filing of reports (true or not) of criminal behaviour to the police, revelation of damaging facts (such as pictures of the object of the extortion in a compromising position), etc.
It is an act, often a crime, involving unjustified threats to make a gain (commonly money or property) or cause loss to another unless a demand is met. Essentially, it is coercion involving threats to reveal substantially true or false information about a person to the public, a family member, or associates, or threats of physical harm or criminal prosecution. It is the name of a statutory offence in the United States of America, England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Victoria, Australia, and has been used as a convenient way of referring to other offences, but was not a term of art in English law before 1968. It originally meant payments rendered by settlers in the Counties of England bordering Scotland to chieftains and the like in the Scottish Lowlands, in exchange for protection from Scottish thieves and marauders into England.
Blackmail may also be considered a form of extortion. Although the two are generally synonymous, extortion is the taking of personal property by threat of future harm. Blackmail is the use of threats to prevent another from engaging in a lawful occupation and writing libellous letters or letters that provoke a breach of the peace, as well as use of intimidation for purposes of collecting an unpaid debt. Some US states distinguish the offenses by requiring that blackmail be in writing. In some jurisdictions, the offence of blackmail is often carried out during the act of robbery. This occurs when an offender makes a threat of immediate violence towards someone in order to make a gain as part of a theft. For example, the threat of "Your money or your life!" is an unlawful threat of violence in order to gain property."
It is an act of dishonestly withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes. Embezzlement is a type of financial fraud, e.g. a lawyer might embezzle funds from the trust accounts of his or her clients; a financial advisor might embezzle the funds of investors; and a husband or a wife might embezzle funds from a bank account jointly held with the spouse.
Embezzlement usually is a premeditated crime performed methodically, with the embezzler taking precautions to conceal his or her activities of the criminal conversion of the property of another person, because the embezzlement is occurring without the knowledge or the consent of the affected person. Often it involves the trusted individual embezzling only a small proportion or fraction of the total of the funds or resources he/she receives or controls; in an attempt to minimize the risk of the detection of the misallocation of the funds or resources. When successful, embezzlements continue for years (or even decades) without detection. It is often only when a relatively large proportion of the funds are needed at one time; or they are called upon for another use; or, when a major institutional reorganization (the closing or moving of a plant or business office, or a merger/acquisition of a firm) requires the complete and independent accounting of all real and liquid assets; prior to, or concurrent with, the reorganization, that the victims realize the funds, savings, assets or other resources, are missing and that they have been duped by the embezzler.
In the U.S., embezzlement is a statutory offense, thus the definition of the crime of embezzlement varies according to the given statute. Typically, the criminal elements of embezzlement are: (i) the fraudulent (ii) conversion (iii) of the property (iv) of another person (v) by the person who has lawful possession of the property.
(i) Fraudulence: The requirement that the conversion be fraudulent requires that the embezzler wilfully, and without claim of right or mistake, converted the entrusted property to his or her own use.
(ii) Criminal conversion: Embezzlement is a crime against ownership; i.e. voiding the right of the owner to control the disposition and use of the property entrusted to the embezzler. The element of criminal conversion requires substantial interference with the property rights of the owner. (This is unlike larceny, wherein the slightest movement of the property, when accompanied by the intent to permanently deprive the owner of possession of the property is sufficient cause.)
(iii) Property: Embezzlement statutes do not limit the scope of the crime to conversions of personal property. Statutes generally include conversion of tangible personal property, intangible personal property and choose in action. Real property is not typically included.
(iv) of another: A person cannot embezzle his or her own property.
(v) Lawful possession: The critical element is that the embezzler must have been in lawful possession of the property at the time of the fraudulent conversion, and not merely have custody of the property. If the thief had lawful possession of the property, the crime is embezzlement. If the thief merely had custody, the crime is larceny.
It is an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea. Those who engage in acts of piracy are called pirates.
Narrow channels which funnel shipping into predictable routes can develop opportunities for piracy, as well as for privateering and commerce raiding. (For a land-based parallel, compare the association of bandits and brigands with mountain passes.) Historic examples include the waters of Gibraltar, the Strait of Malacca, Madagascar, the Gulf of Aden, and the English Channel, whose geographic strictures facilitated pirate attacks.
The term can include acts committed in the air, on land, or in other major bodies of water or on a shore. It does not normally include crimes committed against people traveling on the same vessel as the perpetrator (e.g. one passenger stealing from others on the same vessel). The term has been used throughout history to refer to raids across land borders by non-state agents. Piracy or pirating is the name of a specific crime under customary international law and also the name of a number of crimes under the municipal law of a number of states. It is distinguished from privateering, which is authorized by national authorities and therefore a legitimate form of war-like activity by non-state actors. In the 21st century, the international community is facing many problems in bringing pirates to justice.

The Word Pirate has been derived from the Latin Term 'pirata' which means to attempt.
Aircraft Hijacking etc are nothing but different terms of Piracy. There are different types of Pirate Code which different pirates such as John Phillips have developed for maintaining Discipline and Division of Stolen Goods. To find out more about Classic Pirates go to the Material Above
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