APUSH Chapters 7-8
Terms in this set (90)
Sugar Act 1764
An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
Quartering Act of 1765
Act forcing colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties..
Stamp Act 1765
Was issued in order to raise revenues to support the new British military force. Mandated the use of stamped paper certifying the payment of taxes. Colonist were angrily aroused and felt that this act was jeopardizing the basic right of the colonists as Englishmen.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Proclamation Act 1763
Act passed by England prohibiting colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
Declaratory Act 1766
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
government official, close to the king, likeable, sponsored taxes, "Champagne Charlie", sponsored taxes for: lead, glass, paper, paint & tea,
Townshend Acts 1767
Taxed luxury items imported into the colonies; colonists outraged and started another movement to stop importing Br. goods
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
Tea Act 1773
Allowed East India Company to avoid navigation taxes when exporting tea to colonies and gave them power to monopolize tea trade; this angered colonists and threatened merchants and the colonial economy.
committees of correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
He played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence.He was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..
Intolerable Acts 1774
1. Closed Boston port until destroyed tea paid for. 2. stopped town meetings. 3. Appointed a military government for Massachusetts. 4. Trials of government officials will be in England.
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
Massachusetts Government Act
This was another of the Coercive Acts, which said that members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected, but instead would be appointed by the king. In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior of the colony.
First Continental Congress
Delegates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Administration of Justice Act
1774-Allowed a soldier or official accused of a crime to be tried outside the colony in British courts (Intolerable Act)
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered
Lexington and Concord
first "battles"; meant to get suppies from militia, but shots exchanged between minutemen and the british as the british continued to concord; Americans ambushed british, killing 300
The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution.
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Ticonderoga and Crown Point
May 1775; small American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured British garrisons; they aquired a large store of gunpowder/artillery which helped with Bunker Hill
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
rights of Englishmen
Term prevalent in seventeenth-century England and America referring to certain historically established rights, beginning with the rights of the Magna Carta, that all English subjects were understood to have. These included the right not to be kept in prison without a trial, the right to trial by jury, security in one's home from unlawful entry, and no taxation without consent, among others.
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Pontiac's Rebellion led to Britain's Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.
These were vigilante groups active in the 1760s and 1770s in the western parts of North and South Carolina. They violently protested high taxes and insufficient representation in the colonial legislature.
writs of assistance
legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled
internal vs external taxation
internal taxations were taxations on personal goods and property, while external taxations dealt with taxing goods that were being imported (townshend acts).
a tax on imported goods that is intended to protect a nation's businesses from foreign competition
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Social Contract Theory
The belief that people are free and equal by natural right, and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influential in the writing of the declaration of independence.
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.
A letter circulated in 1767 in reaction to the Townshend Act. It urged colonists to jointly sign a petition of protest and was influential in causing colonists to work together against the British.
The colonists thought that there was a conspiracy against them. Seizing their opportunity to destroy the hated vessel, a group of colonists disguised as Native Americans ordered the British crew ashore and then set fire to the ship., Rhode Island colonists boarded the HMS Gaspee, a British ship, looted it, then burned and sank it in 1772.
English General who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill. Howe did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning, and he found more agreeable the bedtime company of his mistress. At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.
Surrendered to america at Saratoga, Wanted three British armies to march on Albany, New York, from different directions. They would crush American forces there once they controlled the Hudson River, the British could stop the flow of soldiers and supplies from New England to Washington's army.
Baron von Steuben
A stern, Prussian drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British.
Battles of Trenton and Princeton
Washington crossed Delaware, surprised Hessians at Trenton, went on to win at Princeton...gave new hope to Americans after defeats in New York
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
Quaker-raised American general who employed tactics of fighting and then drawing back to recover, then attacking again. Defeated Cornwallis by thus "fighting Quaker".
British general who fought the Patriots in the south; surrounded at Yorktown and surrendered to George Washington
George Rogers Clark
Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America
John Paul Jones
The commander of one of America's ships; daring, hard-fighting young Scotsman; helped to destroy British merchant ships in 1777; brought war into the water of the British seas.
Admiral de Grasse
A French admiral. He had a powerful fleet in the West Indies that he offered to Washington to help in an attack on Cornwallis at Yorktown.
Marquis de Lafayette
He was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won!
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
Treaty of Paris 1783
Treaty Between England and the Colonies , formally ended the American Revolutionary War
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
government free from external control
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.
a government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution.
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
Powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
President of the Continental Congress; first to sign the declaration
parliaments proposal that the colonies, instead of being taxed directly by parliament, would tax themselves at the Parliaments demand
Declaration of Causes
what was the document that explained the Texans' reason of fighting
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed __________ forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Richard Henry Lee
Member of the Second Continental Congress who urged Congress to support independence; signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
principal place of business (corporate HQ)
The Crisis Papers
Written by Thomas Paine and was a pep talk for the American people during a low point in the Revolutionary War → "These are the times that try men's souls"
at the Battle of "________" Howe defeated Washington with the help of new rifles
Howe's troops mostly at Germantown (north of Philadelphia). Washington try to force them out of Philadelphia again was but defeated again.
Kings Mountain and Cowpens
americans defeated british at these two battles in carolinas in 1781
a judicial approach holding that the Constitution should be read literally, with the framers' intentions uppermost in mind
Courts should read the Constitution expansively and should not limit themselves to what is explicitly stated
A historian who argued that the Founders were largely motivated by the economic advantage of their class in writing the Constitution